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117 Cards in this Set

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the belief that the traits from an offspring resulted in the blending of particles that existed in every part of the body with particles of another individual during reproduction
Gregor Mendel
(1822-1884) experiments on peas established basic Medellian laws of inheritance
Offspring of individuals that differ with regard to certain traits or certain aspects of genetic makeup; heterozygotes.
Of or belonging to a recognized strain established by breeding individuals of unmixed lineage over many generations
Positive Assortative Mating
Similar individuals prefer each other as mates
Negative Assortative Mating
Dissimilar individuals prefer each other as mates
Principle of Segregation
Genes (alleles) occur in pairs because chromosomes occur in pairs. During gamete formation, the members of each pair of alleles separate so that each gamete contains one member of each pair. During fertilization, the full number of chromosomes is restored, and members of gene or allele pairs are reunited.
Principle of Independent Assortment
The distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes does not influence the distribution of another pair. The genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another
an allele that's expressed in the presence of another allele. They prevent the expression of recessive alleles in heterozygotes.
Describes a trait that isn't expressed in heterozygotes; also refers to the allele that governs the trait. For this type of allele to be expressed, an individual must have two copies of it (i.e., the person must be homozygous).
Having the same allele at the same locus on both members of a pair of chromosomes.
Having different alleles at the same locus on members of a pair of chromosomes.
Homozygous Dominant
having dominant alleles at the same locus on a chromosome
Homozygous Recessive
a diploid that carries two copies of the recessive allele of the examined gene.
The genetic makeup of an individual. It can refer to an organism's entire genetic makeup or to the alleles at a particular locus.
The observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism; the detectable expression of genotypes, frequently influences by environmental factors.
Mendelian Traits
Characteristics that are influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus. Examples include many blood types, such as ABO.Many genetic disorders such as sickle-cell anemia and Tay-Sachs disease.
Phenotypic Ratio
The proportion of one phenotype to other phenotypes in a group of organisms.
Sex-Linked traits
Controlled by genes located on the X and Y chromosomes. Traits only expressed in one sex
P-Parental Generation
The generation of individuals of different genotypes that are mated, usually for scientific purposes, to produce hybrids.
F-Filial Generation
The generation resulting from a genetically controlled mating that is successive to the parental generation.
Inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine; results in mental retardation if left untreated during childhood
Sickle-Cell Anemia
Abnormal form of hemoglobin that results in collapsed red blood cells, blockage of capillaries, reduced blood flow to organs, and, without treatment, death.
PTC Tasting
The ability to taste the bitter substance phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Tasting thresholds vary, suggesting that alleles at another locus may also exert an influence.
A large molecule found on the surface of cells. Several different loci govern various of these on red and white blood cells
The expression of two alleles in heterozygotes. In this situation, neither allele is dominant or recessive so they both influence the phenotype.
Pedigree Chart
A diagram showing family relationships; it's used to trace the hereditary pattern of a particular genetic (usually Mendelian) traits.
Autosomal Recessive Traits
influenced by loci on autosomes, but show a different pattern of inheritance. They normally appear with equal frequency in both sexes (unless penetrance differs in males and females) and appear only when a person inherits two alleles from the trait, one from each parent.
Autosomal dominant traits
governed by dominant alleles located on autosomes. A pattern of inheritance in which an affected individual has one copy of a mutant gene and one normal gene on a pair of autosomal chromosomes.
X-Linked Recessive Traits
a mode of inheritance in which a mutation in a gene on the X chromosome causes the phenotype to be expressed (1) in males (who are necessarily hemizygous for the gene mutation because they have only one X chromosome) and (2) in females who are homozygous for the gene mutation (i.e., they have a copy of the gene mutation on each of their two X chromosomes).
Lack of an enzyme in red blood cells; produces severe, sometimes fatal anemia in the presence of certain foods (e.g. fava beans) and/or drugs (e.g. the antimalarial drug primaquin).
Three forms: two (A and B) are X-linked. In form A, a clotting factor is missing. Hemophilia B is caused by a defective clotting factor. Both produce abnormal internal and external bleeding from minor injuries;severe pain is a frequent accompaniment without treatment, death usually occurs before adulthood.
Characterized by having one or more genes without allelic counterparts. In diploid organisms, the presence of single copy of a gene; it may be a result of deletion or chromosome loss, or simply may reflect the presence of a single copy of a sex chromosome, such as the X in male mammals.
Referring to traits that are influenced by genes at two or more loci. Stature, skin color, eye color, and hair color are examples of polygenic traits. Many, but not all, polygenic traits are influenced by environmental factors such as nutrition.
Polygenic inheritance
refers to inheritance of a phenotypic characteristic (trait) that is attributable to two or more genes and can be measured quantitatively.
A situation that occurs when the action of a single gene influences several seemingly unrelated phenotypic effects.
Mitochondrial Inheritance
the inheritance of traits controlled by genes on the DNA of mitochondria in the ooplasm; thus the genes are inherited entirely from the maternal side, segregate randomly at meiosis or mitosis, and are variably expressed.
Variation (genetic)
Inherited differences among individuals; the basis of all evolutionary change
Evolution (modern genetic definition)
A change in the frequency of alleles from one generation to the next.
Allele Frequency
In a population, the percentage of all the alleles at a locus accounted for by one specific allele.
A single human being or organism as distinct from a group, class, or family.
Within a species, a community of individuals where matse are usually found.
Small changes occurring within species, such as a change in allele frequencies
Changes produces only after many generations, such as the appearance of a new species.
When one allele changes to another-that is, if the gene itself is altered-a mutation has occured.
An anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment. Adaptations result from evolutionary change (specifically, as a result of natural selection).
Gene flow
Exchange of genes between populations
In a physiological context, any factor that acts to disrupt homeostasis; more precisely, the body's response to any factor that threatens its ability to maintain homeostasis.
Random Genetic Drift
evolutionary changes-that is, changes in allele frequencies-produced by random factors. Genetic drift is a result of small population size.
A condition of balance, or stability, within a biological system, maintained by the interaction of physiological mechanisms that compensate for changes (both external and internal).
Founder Effect
A type of genetic drift in which allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from, or are remnants of, larger populations.
changes in allele frequency occurring as a result of a decrease in population size
Gene Pool
Total complement of genes shared by the reproductive members of a population.
Physiological responses to changes in the environment that occur during an individual's lifetime. Such responses may be temporary or permanent, depending on the duration of the environmental change and when in the individual's life it occurs. It may typify an entire species or population, and because it's under genetic influence, it's subject to evolutionary factors such as natural selection or genetic drift.
The basic unit of life that contains the chromosomes and divides for growth and for production of sex cells.
the quality of being easily shaped or molded.
Solar Radiation and Skin
Populations with the most pigmentation are found in the tropics, while lighter skin color is associated with more northern latitudes, especially the long-term inhabitants of northwestern Europe.
Three substances influences skin color: hemoglobin, the protein carotene, and most important, the pigment melanin.
An intermittent and remittent fever caused by a protozoan parasite that invades the red blood cells. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes in many tropical and subtropical regions. The relationship between malaria and hemoglobin S provides one of the best examples we have of natural selection in contemporary humans.
Neural Tube
In early embryonic development, the anatomical structure that develops to form the brain and spinal cord
Spina Bifida
A condition in which the arch of one or more vertebrae fails to fuse and form a protective barrier around the spinal cord.
Plasmodium falciprium
a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. It is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria caused by this species is the most dangerous form of malaria
Folate (A B Vitamin)
found esp. in leafy green vegetables, liver, and kidney.
Hba AND Hbs
Persons who are heterozygous for sickle cell hemoglobin, HbA/HbS (HbA - normal alpha globin in hemoglobin, HbS - sickle cell alpha globin mutant allele) are resistant to infection by the malaria parasite.
Skin Cancer
skin growths with differing causes and varying degrees of malignancy. The three most common malignant skin cancers are basal cell cancer, squamous cell cancer, and melanoma, each of which is named after the type of skin cell from which it arises.
Host and Vector
a combination of a bacterial host cell (i.e. A specific strain) and a virus vector (i.e. A particular bacteriophage strain) which work well together for dna cloning.
UV Radiation
UVA has the longest wavelength and can penetrate through to the bottom of the dermis, while the medium length UVB waves usually penetrate only to the basal layer of the epidermis.
One who believes that all humans are descended from a single pair of ancestors
Vitamin D
any of a group of vitamins found in liver and fish oils, essential for the absorption of calcium and the prevention of rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. They include calciferol (vitamin D 2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3).
One who maintains that animals of the same species have sprung from more than one original pair of ancestors
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, German anatomist. He was one of the first to explore the study of mankind as an aspect of natural history. He classified humans into five races and recognized that traits such as skin color showed overlapping expression between groups.
Swedish anatomist who developed the cephalic index as a method of describing the shape of the human head.
Expansion of blood vessels, permitting increased blood flow to the skin. Permits warming of the skin and facilitates radiation of warmth as a means of cooling. Involuntary response to warm temperatures, various drugs, and even emotional states (blushing).
Indivuals with an index of less than 75 had long, narrow heads were labeled this
Bergmann's Rule
Concerns the relationship of body mass or volume to surface area. Among mammals, body size tends to be greater in populations that live in colder climates. This is because as mass increases, the relative amount of surface are decreases proportionately. Because heat is lost at the surface, it follows that increased mass allows for greater heat retention and reduced heat loss.
Individuals with broad heads who had an index of over 80 were labeled this
Allen's Rule
Concerns shape of body, especially appendages. In colder climates, shorter appendages, with increased mass-to-surface ratios, are adaptive because they're more effective at preventing heat loss. Conversely, longer appendages, with increased surface area relative to mass, are more adaptive in warmer climates because they promote heat loss.
Biological determinism
The concept that phenomena, including various aspects of behavior (e.g., intelligence, values, morals) are governed by biological (genetic) factors; the inaccurate association of various behavioral attributes with certain biological traits, such as skin color.
Narrowing of blood cessels to reduce blood flow to the skin. It is an involuntary response to cold and reduces heat loss at the skin's surface.
The philosophy of "race improvement" through the forced sterilization of members of some groups and increased reproduction among others; an overly simplified, often racist view that's now discredited.
deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues.
Referring to species composed of populations that differ in the expression of one or more traits.
Race and Racisim
Race refers to geographically patterned phenotypic variation within a species. Racism is the false belief that along with our physical characteristics, humans inherit such factors as intellect and various cultural attributes.
Genetic and environmental factors contribute to this
Infectious Diseases
Infection, as opposed to other disease categories such as degenerative or genetic disease includes those pathological condition caused by microorganisms.
Epidemic Diseases
disease that spreads rapidly.
Endemic Diseases
Continuously present in a population
Loci with more than one allele. Can be expressed in the phenotype as a result of gene action, or they can exist solely at the DNA level within noncoding regions
the branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health.
A gradual change in the frequency of genotypes and phenotypes from one geographical region to another
Population genetics
The study of the frequency of alleles, genotypes, and phenotypes in populations from a microevolutionary perspective
Zoonotic or Zoonoses
A disease that's transmitted to humans through contact with nonhuman animals
Proteins that are produced by some types of immune cells and that serve as major components of the immune system. They recognize and attach to foreign antigens on bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. Then other immune cells destroy the invading organism.
Genetic Variation
variation in alleles of genes, occurs both within and among populations. Genetic variation is important because it provides the “raw material” for natural selection. Genetic variation is brought about by mutation, which is a change in the chemical structure of a gene.
Substances or microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses, that cause disease.
prevalent over a whole country or the world.
all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area.
Gene Pool
The total complement of genes shared by the reproductive members of a population
Breeding Isolates
Populations that are clearly isolated geographically and/or socially from other breeding groups
Mating with individuals from the same group
Mating pattern whereby individuals obtain mates form groups other than their own
Hardy-Weinberg Theory of Genetic Equilibrium
The mathematical relationship expression-under ideal conditions-the predicted distribution of alleles in populations; the central theorem of population genetics
Nonrandom Mating
Patterns of mating in a population in which individuals choose mates preferentially
A type of nonrandom mating in which relatives mate more often than predicted under random mating conditions
Incidence Rate
number of new cases per population in a given time period.
Slash-and-Burn Agriculture
A traditional land-clearing practice involving the cutting and burning of trees and vegetation. In many areas, fields are abandoned after a few years and clearing occurs elsewhere.
Balanced Polymorphism
The maintenance of two or more alleles in a population due to the selective advantage of the heterozygote
Prevalence Rate
the proportion of a population found to have a condition.
Biocultural evolution
Biocultural evolution is an evolutionary process that is the result of culture's interaction with biology throughout human evolutionary history.
Lactose Intolerance
The inability to digest fresh milk products, caused by the discontinued production of lactase-the enzyme that breaks down lactose, or milk sugar.
the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth
the condition that results from taking an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess (too high an intake), or in the wrong proportions.
an agent, such as radiation or a chemical substance, that causes genetic mutation.
a substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue.
an agent or factor that causes malformation of an embryo.
What was Gregor Mendel's Contribution to the fields of heredity and genetics?
He did the experiments on peas established basic Medillian laws of inheritance
What are the principles Gregor discovered?
-The Principle of Segregation
-the Principle of Independent assortment