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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the components of the urinary system.

Where are the kidneys located?
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

Kidneys are high on the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity. They are retroperitoneal (behind the parietal peritoneum)

Each kidney is divided into a ____ and a ____

Each kidney contains a hollow ____ ____.

____ _____ project into the renal sinus.

the ureter expands into the ____ ____.
medulla, cortex

renal sinus

renal papillae

renal pelvis.

Name four functions of the kidney
1)removing and excreting metabolic wastes from the blood
2)help regulate RBC production
3)help regulate blood pressure
4)help regulate volume, composition, pH of body fluids

Name the structures that blood flows through when going to the kidney, in order.

Venous flow goes through which structures?
renal artery, interlobar arteries, arcuate arteries, interlobular arteries, afferent arterioles, glomerular capillaries, efferent arterioles, and peritubular capillaries.

venous blood returns through a series of vessels that correspond to the arterial pathways.

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

What does it consist of ?

a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.

In the nephron, what does the renal corpuscle consist of?

Name the segments of the renal tubule.

Where does the collecting duct go?
a glomerulus and glomerular capsule.

proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop (ascending and descending limbs), and distal convoluted tubule (which empties into a collecting duct).

The collecting duct empties into the minor calyx of the renal pelvis.

the glomerular capillary of the nephron receives blood from the ____ arteriole and passes it to the ____ arteriole

What gives rise to the peritubular capillary system? what does this system surround?
afferent, efferent

efferent arteriole gives rise to the peritubular capillary system, which surrounds the renal tubule.

In the nephron, the juxtaglomerular apparatus at the point of contact between the ____ _____ _____, and the afferent and _____ arterioles

What does the juxtaglomerular apparatus consist of?
distal convoluted tubule, efferent

macula densa and the juxtaglomerular cells.

Nephrons remove ____ from blood and regulate ____ and ______ concentrations. _____ is the end product.
waste, water, electrolyte, urine

What is special about glomerular capillaries?

Urine formation begins when water and dissolved materials ____ out of glomerular capillaries

The composition of the filtrate is similar to that of ____ ____.
They are much more permeable than capillaries in other tissues.


tissue fluid

What is filtration pressure?

Filtration is due mainly to _____ pressure inside _____ capillaries

The _____ pressure of plasma and the _____ pressure in the glomerular capsule also affect filtration
the net force moving material out of the glomerulus and into the glomerular capsule

hydrostatic, glomerular

osmotic, hydrostatic

The rate of filtration in the kidneys varies with ____ ____.

What components of the nephron can change the filtration pressure?
filtration pressure

Filtration pressure changes with the diameters of the afferent and efferent arterioles.

How does colloid osmotic pressure in the glomerulus affect filtration rate?

How does hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capsule affect filtration rate?
As colloid osmotic pressure int he glomerulus increases, filtration rate decreases.

As hydrostatic pressure in a glomerular capsule increases, filtration rate decreases.

Name three things (eg pressures) that contribute to filtration rate in the nephron

How much glomerular fluid do the kidneys produce? Does all of it go into the urine?
1)filtration pressure (changes with the diameters of the afferent and efferent arterioles)
2)colloid osmotic pressure in the glomerulus
3)hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capsule

about 125 ml/minute. No, most of it is reabsorbed.

How does the autonomic nervous system affect renal filtration?

How does it do this?
increased sympathetic nerve activity can DECREASE glomerular filtration rate.

Afferent arteriole vasoconstriction which DECREASES glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure, and DECREASES GFR.

What three things stimulate renin release.
1)drop in bp
2)sympathetic stimulation
3)macula densa sensing a decrease in chloride, potassium, and sodium ions reaching the DISTAL tubule.

Name three ions that the macula densa is sensitive to.

where in the nephron does this occur?
chloride, potassium, sodium

distal tubule

What does renin do?

what does angiotensin II do?

What does aldosterone do?
stimulates the production of angiotensin II.

1)vasoconstricts EFFERENT arteriole (increases glomerula capillary hydrostatic pressure, increasing GFR)
2)simulates secretion of aldosterone

Aldosterone stimulates tubular reabsorption of sodium.

What three processes produce urine?
1)glomerular filtration
2)tubular reabsorption
3)tubular secretion

What is tubular reabsorption?

What part of the tubule is especially involved in reabsorption? why?

How does the peritubular capillary help in reabsorption?
substances are selectively reabsorbed from glomerular filtrate in the tubule.

PROXIMAL tubule (epithelial cells here have MICROVILLI )

the peritubular capillary's permeability adapts it for reabsorption.

Name TWO modes of transport involved in tubular reabsorption. What do these transport?

Which of these has limited transport capacity? and why?
1)ACTIVE transport reabsorbs glucose and amino acids
2)OSMOSIS reabsorbs water

Active transport mechanisms have limited transport capacities, as the number of carriers is limited (it can only transport a certain number of molecules in a given time)

Most sodium is _____ before urine is excreted. How? How does this affect other ions. How does this affect water reabsorption?

what does ADH do?

Sodium and ADH affect the urine _____ and _____
reabsorbed. Active transport in the proximal tubule. Negative ions (eg chloride) accompany the positive sodium ions. Water accompanies the sodium.

Antidiuretic hormone PROMOTES WATER reabsorption (increases permeability of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct)

concentration, volume

Discuss urea excretion.

How is uric acid reabsorbed?

Some uric acid is ____ into the renal tubule.
1)DIFFUSION PASSIVELY reabsorbs urea, but 50% of urea is excreted in urine.

uric acid is reabsorbed by ACTIVE transport


What is tubular secretion?

Name four substances that are secreted.
secretion transports substances FROM PLASMA to the tubular fluid.

1)various organic compounds
2)potassium (active and passive secretion)
3)hydrogen ions (active and passive)
4)some uric acid

Name five constituents of urine

Urine volume varies with _____ _____ and with certain environmental _____.
1)water (95% of urine is water)
3)uric acid
5)MAY contain trace amino acids

fluid intake, factors

The ureters extend from the _____ to the ____ ____.

How does the ureter move the urine?
kidneys, urinary bladder

peristaltic waves

What are some roles of the urinary bladder?

What is the trigone?
1)store urine
2)force it through the urethra

trigone is a triangular portion of the floor of the bladder which contains the openings of the ureters and the urethra at its corners

Name the four layers of the bladder wall

Which layer is the detrusor muscle? What does the detrusor muscle contribute towards?
mucous coat, submucous coat, muscular coat, serous coat (outer layer)

Muscular layer (coat). Detrusor muscle forms the internal urethal sphincter.
what is micturition?

What happens during micturition?
Micturition is urination or the expelling of urine.

the detrusor muscle contracts. the external urethral sphincter relaxes.

Describe the micturition reflex.

What else does bladder filling do?

From the reflex center, PARASYMPATHETIC MOTOR impulses travel to the DETRUSOR muscle, causing it to contract. A second reflex RELAXES the EXTERNAL urethral sphincter.

Bladder filling also causa opening of the INTERNAL urethral SPHINCTER.

Which urethral sphincter can be controlled voluntarily.

Nerve centers in the ____ _____ and ____ _____ aid control of urination
the EXTERNAL urethral sphincter. This sphincter can also be controlled involuntarily.

cerebral cortex, brain stem

What does the urethra do?
the urethra conveys URINE from the bladder to the outside.

Define renal plasma threshold.
a certain, critical, level or concentration of a substance in plasma (eg glucose). Above this level, the substance will be excreted in the urine, as the reabsorption mechanisms cannot deal with such an amount in the tubule.

For example when there is too much glucose in the urine, nephron cannot reabsorb it all, and it excretes some glucose in the urine (glucosuria).
urin 19.6

How do potassium ions enter the urine.
1)passive secretion (as sodium is reabsorbed actively int he distal convoluted tubule, it leaves a negative charge in the tubule, which attracts potassium and hydrogen positive ions)
2)active secretion.