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168 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
defrag C:
starts the defragmentation of the C drive.
defrag C: /v
defrags the c drive and the /v switch displays the analysis and defragmentation reports.
command used to build tracks and sectors on a hard disk so it can store data.
checks disk for errors and bad sectors.
opens the system configuration utility.
used to troubleshoot TCP/IP issues relating to connectivity, name resolution and network reachability.
displays all current TCP/IP configuration values.
performs a variety of network tasks.
chkdsk /f
fixes errors on disk w/o scanning the disk
chkdsk /r
saves readable information.
chkdsk /x
dismounts the volume.
used to disable items that normally run at startup.
SFC (System File Checker)
verfies system files when the system reboots to ensure they weren't corrupted or changed.
When to use msconfig
when you get the "Device registered in Registry not found" error.
when to use Device Manager
when you get the "device has failed to start" error.
How to resolve the "Inaccessible Boot Device" error
remove any non-bootable media from the drives then reboot the computer.
"invalid boot disk error"
use the setup program or fixmbr.
When an application halts or ends abruptly
disable firewalls and antivirus applications.
if you're experiencing installations issues or an installation fails
check the cd for scratches, dust or smudges
when you attempt to start a program from its shortcut and the launch fails
relocate the program files
When experiencing hardware issues
update the device drivers
Windows Print Spooler Service that handles the printing process.
Event Viewer
an administrative tool that allows you to review the system log files to see what the system was busy with when it locked up.
Task Manager
application that contains all the processes running in the background and allows you to end them to resolve an issue.
If you get the BSOD (Blue Screen of Death)
Examine the memory dump file. But also identify and isolate all changes made to the system before BSOD happened.
If the computer performs slowly and responds sluggishly after boot up
Use msconfig to perform startup file maintenance and disable programs that load during startup unnecessarily.
When system behaves erratically, it may reboot automatically many times to solve a problem. But you want it to stop.
in windows 7: control panel->System and Maintenance->System->Advanced System Settings->Settings (under Startup and Recovery)->Deselect Automatically Restart
BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)
startup code that's ran when a computer is first powered on.
a component of a motherboard chipset that provides communication between the video adapter bus (PCIe or AGP), CPU, and RAM.
Southbridge (a.k.a I/O Hub)
handles communications from all peripheral buses except for those dedicated to video.
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
responsible for executing code. It performs mathematical operations based on stored instruction sets to execute code and it communicates with RAM to perform its duties.
ROM (Read-Only Memory)
Memory that is only read. When computer is powered off, it retains data.
Single Inline Memory Module that is either 30-pin or 72-pin.
ECC (Error Correction Code) Memory
detects and corrects errors during memory transactions.
Maximum partitions one can create for Windows XP Profession 64-bit edition
4 is the maximum allowed primary partitions that can be created during installation.
What is the problem when the LCD screen flickers then goes black?
Most common problem is a bad inverter. Need to replace inverter and make sure it's the correct one for the LCD backlight.
Maximum amount of client computers that should exist in a Windows workgroup environment
10 is the recommended maximum. Any more than that will require a domain configuration.
IPv4 Addresses
32-bits long and are divided into 4 octets with 8-bits each. Address are written in dotted decimal notation.
Octet ranges
0 to 255
Lowest IP Address and Highest IP Address
Lowest =

Highest =
IPv6 Addresses
successor to IPv4. It's 128-bits long.
Subnet Mask
used to determine which subnetwork, or subnet an IP address belongs to.
another job the subnet mask has
determines whether the source or destination machines are in the the same or in different networks by comparing network addresses.
a router that allows access from a local subnet to the rest of the intranet or the Internet. Point where data enters and exits the network.
domain names
text strings used to access network resources instead of IP Addresses.
Domain Name Service (DNS)
used to translate network resource Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN) to IP Address.
allocates dynamic addresses to systems on a network during boot-up. It enables dynamic assignment of IP addresses.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
uses a single IP address to access the Internet for all hosts on the network that uses private addresses.
a piece of hardware (or software) that prevents illegal and unwanted data from entering the network. a proxy server can also serve as a firewall.
Troubleshoot protocol configuration issues
make sure there isn't an APIPA address on a large network. Only works with small clients on the same subnet that also uses this feature.
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
automatically assigns IP addresses to a small network if it has a single subnet and doesn't use a DHCP server or static IP addressing.
to determine if the computer is using APIPA
use the ipconfig/all command (or just ipconfig) and if Autoconfiguration Enabled says "yes" and IP begins with 169, it's using APIPA.
releasing an APIPA address
check cable for a secure connection. then confirm that a DHCP server is properly configured on the computer. access the command prompt and type in "ipconfig /renew".
configure the TCP/IP settings
Modify the Gateway, Subnet Mask, and IP address parameter settings.
how do you enable an email account?
configure SMTP and either POP or IMAP
Post Office Protocol (POP) and Internet Message Access Protocol
Incoming email servers
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
standard network protocol used to transfer files between computers on TCP/IP networks on the internet. Uses ports 20 and 21. 20 is used for data transmission and 21 is used for control.
allows you to make exceptions to blocked ports and programs.
troubleshoot FTP issues
ensure correct login, pw and ip address

verify server permissions and directory structures

verify correct connect port is open and being used

confirm problem is not caused by firewall or router

ensure subnet mask is correctly configured

use Ping to test server's response

disable antivirus and firewall to see if they're stopping FTP from gaining access

check firewall exceptions to ensure FTP ports are open
proxy server
acts as the go-between by accepting requests from clients, transmitting these to the origin server and returning the response to clients
tools-internet options
where you configure proxy server settings
used to determine that the network card is working properly. also used to determine DNS functionality.
ipconfig or ipconfig/all
used to get ip address, subnet mask, and default gateway of all the adapters on the computer. and troubleshoot ipconfig issues.
net commands
used to troubleshoot connections.common parameters are netstat, net use, and net commandname /?
net use
used for network drive mapping, view and fix network settings,and connect and disconnect a computer to a resource.
used to check network functionality and Internet connections. displays stats and info regarding TCP/IP network protocols.
net commandname /?
a command used to display information and get help on how to use any of the network commands.
the first remote management standard since 1969 that communicates in cleartext meaning anybody with access to the raw traffic network can view an entire conversation including usernames and passwords.
Secure Shell (SSH)
Telnet's successor that was developed in 1995 and designed to open secure tunnels that enable secure access to other systems or a remote network.
Remote shell
a command-line program that enables two computers to communicate across a network.
used to track the location of network failures. it tracks the routers that data packets encounter as they travel.
troubleshoots DNS issues. displays info relating to hostname resolution and hostname services.
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)
enables you to communicate with a server in cleartext using TCP port 80 for communication.
a secure version of HTTP that uses TCP port 443 for communication with the server. It provides authentication and encryption using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS)
If using SSL to enable HTTPS
web servers need a security certificate to verify their ID. Uses an 128-bit encryption key.
Troubleshoot Firewall issues
Use Windows Firewall
Windows Firewall
enables you to configure and adjust settings to help prevent hackers and malicious software from accessing a computer.
Local Area Network (LAN)
all devices are attached to a common transmission system.
Dial-up networking
enables a computer to connect to a LAN or the Internet via a telephone wire.
uses digital signals to transfer data.
cable broadband
offers highspeed internet connection where cable TV networks are available.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
uses a DSL modem and an Ethernet card to connect to the Internet. Can only transmit data over short distances from the central office or telephone exchange. User has to live within 4 kilometers of the exchange to use DSL.
Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS)
plain copper wire telephone wires that DSL uses to provide network access.
Asymmetric DSL (ADSL)
works asymmetrically with data download speeds being greater (1 Mbps) than upload speeds (256 Kbps). intended for home and small businesses who download more than they send.
Symmetric DSL (SDSL)
works symmetrically with equal rates for sending and receiving data. intended for small-sized and medium-sized businesses. supports data rates of up to 3 Mbps.
an older digital telecommunications standard used to send encoded voice, data and video over regular telephone copper wires. connection requires an adapter or ISDN router.
the process of combining multiple information channels over a shared transmission medium. Saves cost and increases capacity. ISDN uses this to aggregate multiple channels.
used as wireless communication for connecting to the Internet and transmitting and receiving data.
Satellite technology
connects systems that are out of the coverage area of broadband and DSL services. requires a dish, antenna, transceiver and a satellite ISP. solar interference and foul weather compromises satellite connectivity.
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
technology for the transfer of voice over IP networks which is a telephone service over the Internet.
official IEEE 802.3 standard that applies to wired LANs, defining the physical and data link layers and controlling how data is transmitted.
Ethernet that transmits in 10 Mbps. 10 represents 10Mbps, Base represents baseband meaning each data signal has full control of the cable on a single frequency. T refers to twisted pair cable. Uses UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) cable. max cable length between devices - 100m. Uses Star Topology.
Patch panels
used to house cable connections running from wall plates and provide termination points.
data integrity
quality, accuracy and consistency of data
difference between Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) and Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cabling
STP has an extra layer of insulation beneath the jacket which helps fend off interference from outside devices.
coaxial cabling
uses a copper wire to transmit data. similar to cable TV cabling.
uses RG-58 cable which is .25in thick. it transmits at 10 Mbps and max length is 185 m. Uses BNC connectors to connect to a workstation.
uses RG-8 radio grade cable. it's .50 inches thick and it also transmits at 10 Mbps. max length is 500 m. uses an Adapter Unit Interface (AUI) port to link the cable to the system with a transceiver known as a vampire tap.
vampire tap
has small teeth that clamp the cable and cut into its core so an electrical signal can pass from the system to the main network cable.
Fiber optic cabling
faster than coaxial and twisted pair cabling. it can transmit data across distances of 2 km or more. major drawback is the cost.
what fiber optic cabling comprises of
optical, or glass fiber core insulated by glass cladding all enclosed in a jacket. it transmits data as pulses of light making it impossible for data to be corrupted by electronic interference.
Single-mode fiber (SMF)
uses one ray of light or mode to transmit information over longer distances
Multimode Fiber (MMF)
uses multiple modes to transmit information over shorter distances, at the same time.
Straight Tip (ST) Connector
spin-off of BNC connector.
Subscriber Connector (SC)
small plastic square connector. a.k.a. Standard Connector or Square Connector.
Fiber Local Connector (LC)
resembles the SC but has a smaller form factor and preferred over SC.
Mechanical-Transfer-Registered Jack (MT-RJ)
resembles the RJ-45 connector and has a smaller form factor.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
IP addresses are allocated to desktop clients automatically.
Wireless Networking
used on laptops and mobile devices which doesn't require a wire connection
IEEE 802.11
IEEE standard that ensures wireless LANs provide the same functionality as wired LANs.
IEEE 802.11a
devices operating in the 5GHz brand. Typical data rates is 25 Mbps and maximum is 54 Mbps.
IEEE 802.11b
uses 2.4GHz band. 5 Mbps and max is 11 Mbps.
IEEE 802.11g
uses 2.4GHz band and typical data rates are around 25 Mbps and max is 54 Mbps. Backward compatible with IEEE 802.11b.
IEEE 802.11n
uses both 2.4GHz and 5 GHz bands. Typical data rates are around 150 Gbps depending on environmental factors. Max is 600 Mbps.
No authentication (open)
don't require users to use authentication credentials.
uses shared key and password to access the network. only one password is used for all users to access the network.
supports Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) or Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and uses a preshared key. used in home networks or small office.
supports TKIP or AES with no preshared key. clients are authenticated by an authentication server on the network via smart cards, certificates, or an Extensible Authentication Protocol.
uses EAP to provide an authentication framework for wireless LANS where uses are required to be authenticated by central authority.
MAC Address filtering
each access point is configured with a list of allowed MAC addresses.
SSID Broadcasting
client's Service Set Identifier (SSID) is used as the network name. by turning this feature off, you increase security. Network doesn't appear in the list of available networks for all wireless computers in the area.
a protocol that creates small wireless PANs (Personal Area Networks). you can connect a range of devices such as laptops, mobile phones, etc.
Bluetooth Classes
Class 3 = 3ft, Class 2 = 30ft, and Class 1 = 300ft. Class 2 are the most common with peripherals are typically 10 to 20 ft of a computer.
Cellular networking
a way of communicating using geographic areas termed cells. Each cell provides communication coverage to an area by using its own frequency.
Cellular PC Communication
requires an Evolution-Data Optimized (EVDO) card which can be installed in laptops. others similar to EVDO are Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution, EDGE, and Universal Mobile Telephone Service (UMTS) a.k.a. 3G.
port forwarding
allows remote computers to connect to the assigned computers within the LAN via a router. used with remote desktop connections.
port triggering
port forwarding with an on/off switch. Used on NAT-enabled routers.
programs that reproduce themselves and spread infections.
a form of malware than can replicate without a users intervention and attach itself to a file.
installs on a user's computer without their knowledge and access user's data.
messages sent to multiple recipients containing malicious content such as phishing scams.
logic bomb
malicious code that is hidden within a program and triggered if a particular condition is met such as a particular date.
form factor
shape and configuration of the motherboard
the main electric circuit board in a PC, and typically holds the CPU, memory, various pieces of control logic and expansion ports.
form factor attributes
size of motherboard, location of its components, location of the mounting holders, and power requirements of the motherboard
Advanced Technology Extended (ATX)
motherboard form factor est 1995. memory is perpendicular to the expansion slots so the memory and processor align with the power supply fan which cools the components. mesures 12x9.6 in.
Balanced Technology Extended (BTX)
form factor est 2004 by Intel. the major heat-producing components are aligned between the air intake vents and the power supply's exhaust to reduce heat levels. doesn't fit in an ATX form factor chassis but can use an ATX PSU.
micro ATX
released in 1997. a smaller implementation of the ATX form factor. measures 6.75x6.75 in or up to 9.6 x 9.6 in. lacks I/O ports that the ATX has and has lower wattage to reduce heat production.
P8 & P9
molex type connectors used on a AT motherboard form factor.
default location of Windows XP system files
purpose of CPU cache
to improve performance of retrieving data from RAM
Unallocated message in Disk Management
a status message that says the volume hasn't been created on the hard drive. To create a volume you right-click on the unallocated space and select New Simple Volume and the wizard will walk you through the process.
System Monitor
a tool used to monitor the performance of Win 2000 and Win XP computers.
Port 20 and 21
used by FTP which is used to upload and download files between remote computers. Port 20 is for data and 21 is for control signals.
Socket AM2+
a PGA socket with 940 pins. Processors that are compatible are AMD Phenom, AMD Athlon 64 & Athlon XP.
key command to access the Task Manager
PCI-e 2.0 16x bus
max bandwidth is 8000 MB/s
Power Users
can start or stop services not normally started by default.
If the toner smudges off a printed paper by a touch.
means the fuser is faulty
allows you to create and modify any user account on a user computer.
Floppy disk sizes
3.5"(90mm) - 1.44MB
hard drive geometry
platter, spindle, actuator, arm, head, tracks, cylinders, sectors, clusters,
laser printer
combine a laser, high voltage, charged ions, powdered ink, heat and paper.

Very high quality and fast print speeds.

Very complex because lots of moving parts, needs memory inside printer and can be messy because of the toner.
laser printing
uses Raster Image Processing which builds an image on the entire page.
Print languages
Adobe Postscript, HP Printer Command Language (PCL) and Microsoft XML Page Specification (XPS)
Photosensitive Drum
Mechanical process for laser printers. It does 6 things: 1) Clean: cleans leftover toner particles off of drum. 2) Charge: Charges the drum to clear off the ions. 3) Write: Uses laser beam to write information onto the drum. 4) Develop: toner stick to certain parts of the drum. 5) Transfer: toner transfers to paper. 6) Fuse: Toner melts and sticks to paper.
inkjet printer
uses ink cartridges that sprays paper with ink. inexpensive, quiet and prints in high resolution. however the ink is expensive.
Master Boot Record (MBR)
1st sector of a hard drive. Normally 512 bytes. Contains: table of primary partitions, disk signature & directions for starting the operating system.
motherboard form factors
motherboards configured in size to fit a computer case.
size of NLX mobo
size of ATX mobo
size of microATX
size of BTX mobo
size of microBTX
Advanced Technology Extended (ATX)
Motherboard form factor standardized by Intel in 1995.

Power: 20pin connector and 24 pin connector, addition 4/8 pin connector.

Port types: optional I/O backplate and add remove as needed.
Balanced Technology Extended (BTX)
Smaller than ATX but wider. Won't fit in ATX case. Designed to dissipate heat. No longer in production due to lack of popularity but took the idea of BTX and used it.
Smaller than an ATX motherboard. Limited expansion slots.
New Low Profile Extended (NLX)
standardized version of LPX. Support for Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP). Also had better thermal characteristics. Motherboard that's a riser card that fit into an expansion slot. No longer in production.