The Saponification Process

The process that produces soap usually from the base hydrolysis of a fat or oil is called saponification. It is also known as soap making. Formerly, it is the reaction between an ester and sodium hydroxide to yield sodium stearate. The beef was used as triglyceride by boiling it with lye or an impure sodium hydroxide. The top layer is the sodium stearate wherein once it was cooled and turned into solid it was chopped into cubes of yellow soap. In addition, lye was traditionally made by the process of pouring water into wood ashes. (Chang, 2014)
Triglycerides are fats and oils which can be hydrolyzed in the basic solution to produce soap and glycerol. The main goal of soap is to remove grease and dirt by emulsifying the grease. Soap has both
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The presence of CDEA in the solution caused the thickening, wetting, and foam stability of the soap. Glycerin was added to increase the solubility of the solution and add moisture to one’s skin. Irgasan was added to the solution as an effective and safe antibacterial ingredient against microbial infections.
A pinch of citric acid was added to the solution which lowered the initially measured pH of 10 down to 7.9 using the pH meter. It also provided better foam and water-softening in the liquid hand soap. The safe range of pH for soap is between 6 and 9 according to Hornsey (2014). When the pH is above 10, it indicates that the soap is harsh or lye-heavy. This means that it is non-reactant to oils and can burn or irritate the human skin.
After the saponification process, sodium chloride or table salt was added to precipitate the soap because soap is less soluble in salt water. This resulted to the appearance of excess bases which was floated in the solution. Also, the role of sodium chloride made the solution viscous. The solubility rule, which means like dissolves like, results to the cleansing action of soap. The polar head is hydrophilic meaning it dissolves in water while the non-polar tail is hydrophobic meaning it dissolves in oils. The insolubility of fats, oils, and fatty acids in water is responsible for the suspension of dirt or oil in a water

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