This review focuses on the current knowledge of quality determining physical, chemical, thermal and microstructural properties of fats and oils in relation to cookie dough rheology and cookie quality.
Keywords cookies quality, fats and oils, physicochemical properties, rheological properties, spread ratio
Abbreviations: TAG, Triacylglycerol; FAs, Fatty acids; SFA, Saturated fatty acids; UFA, Unsaturated fatty acids; SFC, Solid fat content; SFI, solid fat index; WA, Water absorption.
Cookies are popular snacks consumed by enormous number of people worldwide. Some of the reasons for universal appeal of cookie are their attractive features including wider consumption base, ready to eat nature, affordable cost, nutritional quality, availability in different pleasant tastes and prolonged shelf life. The term biscuits, or cookies as they are called in many parts of the world, refers to baked products containing three major ingredients, i.e. soft wheat flour, sugar and fat with other minor ingredients such as milk, salt, flavoring agent and aerating agents. They have low final water contents of 1 to 5% (Chevallier …show more content…
Cookies occupy prime position for production as well as consumption in contrast to other bakery products. The experimental results achieved by Sheweta et al. (2013) suggested that the cookie quality is affected by many factors such as protein, damaged starch and gluten protein fractions. The quality of cookies is influenced by several other factors like quality and level of ingredients used, processing conditions such as mixing, resting and moulding of the dough, baking and cooling of the cookies (Manohar and Rao, 2000). Quantitatively fats and oils are the third most important ingredient used in cookie making. From a sensory quality viewpoint, fat is one of the principal ingredient that affect cookie texture. As observed in many earlier studies, reducing the fat content or replacing fat with other ingredients have a significant impact on the texture characteristics of biscuits (Campbell et al., 1994; Zoulias et al., 2002; Rodríguez-García et al., 2012). Generally, higher percentages of fat produce more tender cookies (Lai and Lin, 2006). It can have animal or vegetable origin and is often plasticized (Quaglia, 1984; Manley, 1998). Fats and oils are commercially and technically of great importance in food systems play vital role in the quality from a nutritional