Essay On Umar

Midterm Exam

1. What were the major cultural, political and theological decisions Caliph Umar (634-644) made?

Umar ibn al-Khattab or known merely as Umar was the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate of Islam. Umar was one of the most influential Islamic figures at the time and a close companion of Prophet Muhammad himself. During his reign, Umar upheld many of the values that the community had held dearly, and the regulation of the Islamic Calendar would enforce this ideology. The calendar would begin in 622, the year that Muslim’s traveled from Mecca to Medina, as to be counted as so many lunar years after the Hijrah. Umar was known for his conquests throughout the Eastern Roman Empire, Egypt, Syria, and Palestine. As a result, leading towards the establishment of cities such as Basra, Kufa, Damascus, Cairo, and Fustat. Politically, Umar had set up an efficient Judicial Administration which revolved around the main principles of Islam. Qadis were appointed, to foresee the justice system. With a significant expansion, Umar had appointed selected governors into provinces, to whom he could personally trust and insisted they live modest lives.
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The Crusades was an initiative to impose Western Orthodox religious beliefs over a vast expanse of land. Their was already a substantial dispute between both the Papacy and Kings over the issue of power, Europeans knew this problem as the Investiture Controversy. Pope Urban II most notable as the one who initiated Crusading, that Christians needed to go to Jerusalem and recapture it. People who had signed up for the Crusade were given full forgiveness of their sins because they were fighting for God and liberating Jerusalem. Furthermore, Christians in Western Europe had long viewed themselves as the new Israel: successors of the

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