The Major Cultural Political And Theological Decisions Of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab

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Midterm Exam

1. What were the major cultural, political and theological decisions Caliph Umar (634-644) made?

Umar ibn al-Khattab or known merely as Umar was the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate of Islam. Umar was one of the most influential Islamic figures at the time and a close companion of Prophet Muhammad himself. During his reign, Umar upheld many of the values that the community had held dearly, and the regulation of the Islamic Calendar would enforce this ideology. The calendar would begin in 622, the year that Muslim’s traveled from Mecca to Medina, as to be counted as so many lunar years after the Hijrah. Umar was known for his conquests throughout the Eastern Roman Empire, Egypt, Syria, and Palestine. As a result, leading towards the establishment of cities such as Basra, Kufa, Damascus, Cairo, and Fustat. Politically, Umar had set up an efficient Judicial Administration which revolved around the main principles of Islam. Qadis were appointed, to foresee the justice system. With a significant expansion, Umar had appointed selected governors into provinces, to whom he could personally trust and insisted they live modest lives. He also established the Shura Council in which he sought problems and advice on important political matters. In Islamic life, stealing was a forbidden and punishment was based upon the law of “Eye for an Eye and Tooth for a Tooth.” But, during his reign, Umar had forgiven stealing because of the severe drought that had a

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