Nucleus Research Paper

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Nucleus
In each cell, there is one nucleus. It is in the center of the cell, and takes up about ten percent of the cell’s volume. It is a large, oval-shaped structure bound by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. Inside the nucleus, are organelles called nucleoli, which assemble RNA and synthesize ribosomal subunits. Throughout the inside of the nucleus, is a substance called the nucleoplasm, which suspends the nucleus’ structures. The nucleus controls the activities of the cell to maintain life and reproduce. It also regulates the synthesis of protein by sending mRNA to the ribosomes of the cell as a template for protein production. The nucleus contains the genetic material of the cell, deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, which is
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The subunits are produced separately in the nucleolus, released by the nuclear envelope out into the cytosol, and then synthesized. They are made of rRNA, or ribosomal ribonucleic acid, and protein. There are two types of ribosomes: free and bound. Free ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol, while bound ribosomes are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Free ribosomes and bound ribosomes are interchangeable. The cell ca change the numbers depending on its metabolic needs.

The ribosomes read and translate codes from mRNA. The mRNA is sent as a messenger by the nucleolus to give the ribosomes the template for protein synthesis. The ribosomes take the template and hook together amino acids to create a polypeptide chain, protein. The protein made by free ribosomes is used in the cytosol, while bound ribosomes make protein to be used in the cell membrane or to be exported from the cell.
In our cell, the ribosomes are represented by the sweet tart minis. The orange sweet tarts are the free ribosomes and the yellow are bound to the endoplasmic reticulum.

Rough Endoplasmic
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum, or ER, is a network of flattened sacs and microtubules. The endoplasmic reticulum is very large and extends from the nuclear envelope to the cell membrane. The space inside of the endoplasmic reticulum is called the lumen. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called such because it doesn’t have ribosomes attached to it’s outer surface.

The endoplasmic reticulum is the primary form of transportation in the cell, including during the protein-making process. It transports the unfinished protein from the ribosomes to the golgi body. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum specifically, performs carbohydrate and lipid synthesis. It also has many other functions, depending on what type of cell. In myocytes, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum aids in the contraction of muscles. In nerve cells, it synthesizes male and female hormones.

In our model, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is represented by the red fruit by the foot, with no ribosomes attached to it’s

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