Reinforcement And Curriculums In The Theory Of Learning

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According to Grant, a curricula is a template that state explicitly the “intended aims and objectives, content, experiences, outcomes and processes of an educational program”(2011, p. 3). However, this would be only the curriculum ‘in paper’, since Coles (in Grant, 2011), defines that there is a need to recognize two further types of curricula, which is the ‘in action’ (what in reality occurs) and the ‘experienced’ (what the learner perceived). McKimm (2003) refers to the curriculum ‘in action’ as a synonym of ‘hidden’ because it includes all the implicit factors like beliefs, values and processes that are present and can change what is expected.
The existence of this parallel curriculums might be explain by the fact that the design of a
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This means that student are considered empty recipient that need to be filled with information in order to change their attitudes. Reinforcement and punishment are used as environmental conditioning to achieve the expected outcome (Tusting and Barton, 2006). This is the support for a teacher-centered approach because the teacher is the gatekeeper of knowledge and decide what it is transmitted (Biggs, 2011). This theory does not take into account what happens inside the head of the learner …show more content…
The most known authors of it are Piaget and Vygotzky. It claims that learning is an individual mental process of understanding (cognitivist) that depends not only on biological brain maturation (developmental theories) but also on the internal relation (constructivism) with the environment (behaviorism), yet more important is the active social interaction itself that enables the construct of meaning (Tusting and Barton,

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