Reaction Paper

2256 Words Aug 9th, 2014 10 Pages

I. CLASSIFICATIONS 1. Common nouns and proper nouns

2. Concrete nouns and abstract nouns

3. Countable (count) nouns and uncountable (mass) nouns

Uncountable nouns may be: a) material nouns, like air, milk, cotton, bread, pork, etc. b) abstract nouns, like biology, peace, music, etc. c) names of sports, like football, skating, swimming, etc. d) names of edible plants, when reference is made to the species itself, like maize, onion, tomato, potato, etc. e) names of towns, countries, months, etc., like London, England, February, etc.

Obs: There are some words which are uncountable nouns in English, but which refer to things that are considered countable in other languages, like Romanian, for instance advice, luggage/
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editors-inchief, sons-in-law) the compound is formed of noun + adjective (e.g. courts-martial, attorneys general)

compounds with and make both elements plural (e.g. ins-and-outs, pros-and-cons) compounds with man and woman make both elements plural (e.g. women drivers, men singers) Obs: woman-haters, man-eaters

2. Irregular plurals a) Voicing + -s plural long sound + -th [θ] ⇒ plural in [ðz] (e.g. baths, paths) -f(e) [f] ⇒ plural in -ves [vz] (e.g. thieves, leaves)

Obs1: Regular form: chiefs, beliefs, roofs Obs2: Double form: scarfs/scarves, hoofs/hooves, staffs/staves - house [s] – houses [ziz]

b) Mutation Seven nouns (and their compounds) change their root vowel in the plural

c) –en plurals Three nouns: child-children, ox-oxen, brother-brethren

d) Zero plurals: the same form in the singular and in the plural 1) animal names: fish, trout, deer, sheep, moose Obs: the fishes of the Black Sea 2) nationality names or other proper nouns ending in -ese: Chinese, Viennese, Japanese + the noun Swiss 3) nouns denoting measure, quantity, number, when they are preceded by an indication of number: dozen, hundred, thousand, million, score 4) nouns ending in –s: means, works, crossroads, series, species, barracks, headquarters 5) other nouns: aircraft, hovercraft

e) Foreign plurals Some nouns have been adapted to the English system, others have both the foreign plural and the plural in –s, while others have only

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