Pharm Essay

994 Words Nov 7th, 2012 4 Pages
General Characterists of Antimicrobials- 1.Antibacterial – broad spectrum, narrow spectrum- gram positive, gram negative
Broad spectrum to start the process of healing until c&s results – then treat with narrow spectrum susceptible to antibiotic Obtain C&S before administering antibiotics Gram positive stains pinkish Gram negative stains purple-ish blue Bactercidal – kills Bacteriostatic – inhibits growth Side Effects – allergy in 1st 30min – nausea, vomiting, dirreaha Teaching – fluids, yogurt, probiotics, take as directed 2.Antiviral Interrupt cell metabolism 3.Antifungal

Mechanisms of action – Inhibits cell wall synthesis Inhibits protein synthesis Inhibits organism reproduction via DNA
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bacteria developed resisitance Not destroyed by gastric acid BB warning – against IV admin of Penicillian G
Aminopenicillians – broad spectrum Amoxicillian – oral, preferred in treatment of bacterial endocarditis
Extended spectrum (antipsuedomonal) penicillians – broad spectrum gram negative
Penicillan Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor Combo – beta-lactamase inhibitor protect penicillian with combo Extends spectrum (unasyn or augmentin) Augmentin emphasizes beta-lactamase enzyme-protects penicillain
Penicillins G and V, Penicillinase – resistant (antistaphylococcal) Penicilliams, aminopenicillins, extended spectrum (antipseudomonal) penicillins, penicillin-beta-lactamase inhibitor combo

2.Cephalosporins – derived from fungus – broad spectrum
Indications: Surgical prophylaxis or treatment of respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue, bones and joints, urninary tract, brand and spinal cord, bloodstream
1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations

3.Carbapenims – broad spectrum, bacterialcidal, beta-lactam 3 drugs – imipenem-cilastatin, meropenem, ertapenem

4.Monobactam – gram negative Aztreonam- does not cause kidney damage or hearing loss Indications – UTI, skin and skin structures, lower respiratory tract, intra-abdominal and gynecologic infections and septicemia

Aminoglycosides: Gram negative Possible nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity (BBwarning with renal impairment) -penetrate cell walls of bacteria by binding irreversible to 30S ribosomes – bacteria

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