Essay on Patho Chap 1

8897 Words Oct 26th, 2015 36 Pages
Chapter 1 Introduction to Pathophysiology
Lee-Ellen C. Copstead
Key Questions
• What is pathophysiology?
• How are etiology and pathogenesis used to predict clinical manifestations and response to therapy?
• How are normal and abnormal physiologic parameters defined?
• What general factors affect the expression of disease in a particular person?
• What kinds of information about disease can be gained through understanding concepts of epidemiology?
• Review Questions and Answers
• Glossary (with audio pronunciations for selected terms)
• Animations
• Case Studies
• Key Points Review
Pathophysiology derives from the intersection of two older, related disciplines: pathology (from pathos,
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In some cases, similarities among individuals pointed to possible common causes. With the advent of more sophisticated measurements of physiologic and biochemical function, such as blood pressure measurements, blood chemistry values, x-ray images, and DNA analysis, the wide variability in the expression of diseases and disorders in the population became apparent, as did the opportunity to discover diseases at earlier stages, before they were clinically obvious. Screening programs that evaluated large segments of the population revealed the complexity and diversity of disease expression, even in persons with the same genetic defect. Thus, although the study of pathophysiology is necessarily a study of the usual and expected responses of the body to a given disruption, individuals often vary significantly from a classic presentation, making the diagnostic process complex and challenging.
Advances in genomic and epigenomic characterization, innovative technologies, and revolutionary approaches to the analysis of genetic variation and function have made studies and treatments possible that were not even imaginable just a few years ago. As a result, definitions of the living world have been virtually transformed and permeate every branch of biological science. Benefits of this new biology include a deeper understanding of evolution, greater insights into immune mechanisms, and nearly every advance against cancer and

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