Paraphrases Eph 2: 12 As Hopeless Because Godless

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Noah Porter paraphrases Eph 2:12 as "Hopeless because Godless." Agnostics may say that they do not deny the existence of God. Whether they claim unknowableness of God or that the existence of God is unknown, in either case, they do not know God and hence they are in a Godless situation, and the above phrase may describe agnostics' condition. Porter cleverly points out that the ignorance of God, which was regarded as a sin, "is now taught as a necessity of reason" and "the unknowableness of God has been formulated as a philosophy."
Thomas. H. Huxley coined the words "agnosticism" and "agnostic" in the 19th century. Robert Flint comments that Huxley could have used the words "skepticism" and "skeptic" instead of inventing new terminologies.
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He became a college student when he was 12 years old. The Christianity around him was in corruption and the Catholic church was in favor of skepticism which arose in those days. He died in 1776 and left his autobiography and other writings such as Treatise on Human Nature, which show his philosophical thoughts. To Hume, meaningless was an idea that does not contain any mathematical reasoning nor "any experiential reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence," which he thought was founded on causality. Geisler interprets Hume's thought as follows: "All of our knowledge or ideas is derived either through sensation or by the reflection on ideas in the mind." Hume was skeptic about his own thought on the cause of the universe. Geisler refutes Hume's idea about his three major claims. First, Geisler points out self-contradiction in Hume's skepticism. Though Hume is skeptic about judging reality, Geisler says that such an attitude itself shows judgment. Second, Geisler says that Hume's claim that "all meaningful statements are either a relation of ideas or else about matters of fact is itself neither of these." Third, Geilser refutes Hume's empirical atomism, unconnectedness in all events. Geisler says that when one makes a statement about himself, he is already assuming the unity of the

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