Immunodeficiency Virus: A Case Study

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HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. HIV is able to hide for a long period of time in the cells and attack the immune system, specially the T cells. These cells are in the body to fight infections and diseases, but when someone gets infected with HIV these invades the T cells and makes copies of itself and destroys them. As time goes by HIV can destroy many T cells, which affects the body by making the body weak and not able to fight infections and diseases anymore. HIV id divided into three stages, the early stage, the clinical latency stage, and the final stage.
The virus can be transmitted through different ways. It can be transmitted through body fluids such as blood, semen, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. In order
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At the end of 2013 35.5 million living with HIV and approximately 2.1 million got infected globally. HIV is most prevalent in Sub Saharan Africa with 24.5 million people living with HIV in 2013 according to the World Health Organization. This region of the world accounts for almost up to 70 percent of HIV infections globally. In 2012 there was about 1.6 million new HIV infections and nearly 1.2 million AIDS related …show more content…
The fist treatment for HIV was called AZT in 1987. Later on approximately more than 30 drugs were approved to treat people with HIV/AIDS and many more are under development. Currently there are five different HIV drugs that are classified to attack the virus at different points of the cycle. Taking three different medications controls the virus better and protects the immune system. This process is called Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). Some examples of antiretroviral medications include Nucleoside/non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors also called “nuke” that help block the most important step of HIV reproduction process. These two medicines block the enzyme reverse transcriptase and prevent the virus from making copies of its DNA. Another include protease inhibitors that blocks the strands of DNA from getting cut into functional pieces. A third medication is called Fusion inhibitors that blocks the virus from entering the cells. Through receptor sites HIV attach and bond to the CD4 cells which prevent the virus from entering into healthy cells. Lastly integrase inhibitor disable the integrase protein that HIV uses to insert the genetic material into the CD4 cells. However the treatment have some side effects including diarrhea, nausea, heart disease, weakened bones, shortness of breath, and skin rash. Even though it has side effect these treatment has help people with HIV live longer and

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