Hiv Case Study

Improved Essays
1. One of the sets of people that have allelic variation are Long Term Survivors who are homozygous for a 32 base-pair deletion in their genome. The deletion is for CCR5, a chemokine receptor which functions as a HIV co-receptor. Due to the deletion of CCR5, the ability of the virus to fuse with the host cells is impaired and those people can be exposed however they will not become infected. Another subgroup of Long Term Survivors are referred to as elite controllers. These individuals are infected with HIV however it does not progress to AIDS, this is due to the HLA-B57 allele they have which produces effective CTL against HIV peptides that are presented to HLA-B57.

2. Antibodies don’t necessarily play a role in fighting off HIV because they
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When the virus enters it adheres to a special dendritic cell referred to as DC-SIGN in which the dendritic cell is not effected which allows it to be transported to the lymph nodes. The HIV binds via gp120 to CD4 on th cells which changes gp120 allowing it to be a co-receptor thus allowing it to bind to CCR5 or CXCR4. After this binding, the gp41 conformation is changed which reduces the T cell membrane allowing the virus to fuse to the cell. The virus’ reverse transcriptase process begins after moving into the core of the cell to make a dna copy from the rna copy and that then moves into the nucleus of the cell and ultimately fuses to the membrane of the host's …show more content…
DC-SIGNS are lectins on dendritic cells. When the virus enters the body it will first bind to the DC-SIGN in which it is not affected therefore the virus can move to the lymph nodes to infect Th cells by binding to them. This enhances the ability of the virus to infect human cells because it can move the virus to other cells without being recognized as foreign in addition to also being able to lay dormant. After the virus is moved with the help of DC-SIGN, Gp120, the HIV glycoprotein, binds to CD4 on the Th cells causing a conformational change to Gp41 that reduces the T cells membrane allowing the virus to fuse and the virus begins to enter the cells and initiate its takeover

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