Voluntary Human Movement

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Neurological Factors Affecting Movement

Voluntary human movement is regulated and controlled by complex interactions within our central and peripheral nervous systems. The three major types of sensory input come from the visual (eyes), vestibular (inner ear), and somatic (body) sensory systems. The somatic sensory receptors found in muscles, tendons, ligaments, joint capsules, and skin are collectively known as proprioceptors and they gather information about body position and the direction and velocity of movement.

Effective learning and performance of the movement patterns taught by fitness instructors depend on input from the client’s sensory pathways to his or her brain. The brain interprets this sensory information and a specific motor
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In this example, the nerve receptors in the periphery, located in the arm and shoulder region, provide continuous information (feedback) to the CNS regarding the amount of resistance encountered, limb position, pressure sensed on the palms of the hands, and so on. This communication between central and peripheral nervous systems, utilizing the motor and sensory nerve pathways, is essential for us to learn, modify, and successfully perform both simple and complex physical activities.

Skeletal System

The human skeletal system (Fig given below) is made up of 206 bones and can be divided into two sections:
The axial skeleton, 80 bones that comprise the head, neck, and trunk
Theappendicular skeleton, 126 bones that form the extremities.
• The skeletal system provides protection for many of the vital organs, such as the heart, brain, and spinal cord. • The skeleton provides support for the soft tissues so that erect posture and the form of the body can be
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Most of the bones in the lower and upper extremities are long bones, including the femur, tibia, fibula, and metatarsals in the lower limb, and the humerus, radius, ulna, and metacarpals in the upper extremity. Each long bone has a shaft called a diaphysis and two ends that are usually wider than the shaft, known as epiphyses (singular = epiphysis). During the childhood and adolescent years, these cartilaginous epiphyses are active as growth plates that permit normal longitudinal bone growth to take place. By the time the human skeleton fully matures at young adulthood (age range, 18 to 21 years), the epiphyses have changed from cartilage, become fully ossified bone, and no further longitudinal growth in long bones takes

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