Brassica Rapa Seeds

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An Investigation of the Effects of Cytokinins during the Germination of Brassica rapa Seeds

Germination is a vital stage in a plants life, but it also plays a significant role in other animals’ (including humans) life cycle. It is the process in which a new plant grows from a seed. Due to the fact that plants are autotrophs; they use the process of photosynthesis to transform sunlight and make their own food. Germination occurs in gymnosperms and angiosperms when the seed is using its own nutrients, before it is able to photosynthesize. “The plant’s success depends on its ability to quickly produce photosynthetic structures because the nutrients contained in the seed will quickly run out” (Investigation description). If it cannot produce
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Water is essential for germination; most seeds need enough water to get the seeds damp but not enough to soak them. There is an optimal temperature that differs from seed to seed. This is because temperature affects cellular metabolic and growth rates, so each seed can only handle/need a certain range of temperatures. Oxygen is required for metabolism. Oxygen is needed to undergo aerobic respiration, which is the main source of the seedling 's energy until it grows leaves. (Raven, 2005). Lighting is also a large factor because it can be an environmental trigger for germination. Most seeds do not get affected whether or not they are provided with light, but some seeds will not germinate until there is sufficient light for growth of the seedling. (Raven, 2005). The seed coat condition is also important because it also has to have optimal permeability so the seed coat can swell and eventually let the radical come …show more content…
This is relevant question for the life of plants because cytokinins primarily promote lateral growth (branching out), balanced by auxins (a different plant growth hormone) which combat lateral growth. It is crucial for germination because the endosperm of the seeds contain large amounts of the cytokinin (specifically zeatin), and when the seed germinates, it moves from the endosperm to the root tip where it stimulates mitosis. (Cytokinins, 2016) The hypothesis is that if all other variables are controlled and the levels of treatment are applied to the subjects cohesively, the mustard seeds’ radicle and hypocotyl will grow larger both vertically and horizontally; and therefore the quality of the germinating seed will be higher with the addition of cytokinin (zeatin). This applies and can be supported because in nature, the concentration of auxin and cytokinin are supposed to be equal, and therefore normal cell division is supposed to occur. If the concentration of the concentration of the cytokinin is higher, it is hypothesized that there will be a higher amount of growth and stronger results. Also, the major effect of cytokinins is a stimulation of cell division, and zeatin specifically is known to be synthesized in the roots. In the cell cycle, cytokinins promote

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