# Cowles And Davis 2006

1101 Words 4 Pages
Question 1
Cowles and Davis (2016) discussed several factors that contributed to the adoption of the .05 level of statistical significance. The first factor discussed was the discovery that computations can be utilized to measure observational error, by and astronomer, Lambert Adolphe Quetelet. This discovery led to the development of the normal distribution curve utilized today (Cowles & Davis, 2016).
Following the development of the normal distribution curve, a measure of variability known as probable error was discovered (Cowles & Davis, 2016). This discovery was the second factor mentioned by Cowles and Davis (2016) that contributed to the .05 level of statistical significance. Although the term probable error was first used in 1818 by
The first criticism stated was, NHST does not provide the information the researchers are looking for (Kirk, 1996). NHST provides the probability that the researchers will obtain certain data if the null hypothesis is true; however, researchers want to know the probability the null hypothesis is true given the data they collected (Kirk, 1996). Kirk (1996) emphasized due to this confusion, researchers often make incorrect assumptions regarding the p value. He stated the utilization of NHST causes researchers to pay more attention to the p value and the rejection of the hypothesis, instead of focusing on if the obtained data supports the initial …show more content…
Practical significance is whether or not the results gathered are applicable or beneficial to the real world. Researchers must determine if the strength of the relationship within the results is strong enough to have real or practical meaning (Kirk, 1996). Kirk (1996) described how the criticisms of NHST led to the development of measurements that established what he referred to as measures of effect magnitude, which measured the strength of association, effect size, or other measures. He argued researchers should utilize confidence intervals and approximations of a point difference to assess practical significance (Kirk, 1996). Kirk (1996) claimed the calculation of the point difference and confidence intervals utilizes the same amount of information as NHST, and provides an exact range of numbers that the difference is probable to occur within. Moreover, it is easier for researchers to interpret results, and more difficult to disregard marginal effects, since the confidence intervals are reported using the same units of measure as the data (Kirk,

• ## Epistological Assumption In Research

The researhers argued that contemporary studies focus too much on epistemology postivit researches. Previous researches have been attempting to define a positive or negative future for middle management, and using different methods to try to measure and derive to a conclusion. This meant differences in middle managers are excluded as data are being generalised. Besides, they have been trying to answer the general question ‘What is happening to middle management?’, which the authors considered it as an unsolvable question. Some articles on ontology…

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• ## Decision Making Assessment

9). Declaration from Salant and Dillman (1994, p. 77) states that emotionally and biased questions affect survey’s credibility and make responses to the question useless. The design of posed questionnaires should determine the validity of the survey (Capanelli, 1996). Repetitive questions and consistency in responses allow the determination for reliability. When assessing for a program evaluation, ensuring reliability of instruments to be utilized must be prioritized.…

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• ## Financial Analysis Liquidity Ratios

• In table 9 fixed asset turnover ratios of NIIT and 3i Infotech has been calculated. In 2010 NIIT had ratio of 2.42 whereas 3i Infotech had 0.22. Last year this ratio went to 1.89 in case of NIIT and in case of 3i Infotech it went to 0.12. 3i Infotech always had this ratio less than NIIT. From this it can be concluded that NIIT has been more effective in using the investment in fixed assets to generate revenues, than 3i…

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• ## Interpretivism And Postivism

The diminishing of the importance of context in the approach to phenomenographical research can be problematic, especially when the situation is important for understanding the nature of a relationship. The lack of clarity and definitiveness of the approach has been criticised in literature (Ashworth, and Lucas, 2000). Phenomenography is considered to be an ad hoc approach (Richardson, 1999). Sjostrom and Dahlgren (2002) challenge the validity and reliability of research findings using the phenomenographic techniques. The empirical data and its categorisation under the phenomenographical approach is dependent upon the researcher’s interpretation of the data and questions are raised as to whether different researchers might categorise the data in a different manner.…

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• ## Powerpoint Presentation Software

One of the biggest benefits is that the themes in PowerPoint allow you to be consistent in the backgrounds and effects. Every time a new slide is selected a new slide appears in the theme that you had previously selected. This would make your presentation consistent in backgrounds and transitions. The professional audience would love how professional your presentation looks. There are very easy to use and effective sound operations.…

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• ## Qualitative Research Design

There seems to be a general argument whether or not researchers should use a quantitative or qualitative research design when seeking funding for their studies. There is one argument that states that the differences in what makes for a good quantitative or qualitative research design often lead funders to misinformed evaluations of the strengths of exemplary qualitative research. This article is going to explore reasons why the weaknesses of qualitative research often lead for funders to explore more quantitative research methods. However, the argument is that why the strengths of qualitative are design being overlooked. Michael Ungar explains this within the article and “examines differences in the criteria for good quantitative and qualitative…

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• ## William James Theory Of Belief Essay

If James’s theory was accepted, this would lead to ignorance and will hinder the maximization of true beliefs. Preconceptions heavily influence what one wills to believe. If these preconceptions are tainted by false knowledge, formation of new beliefs becomes difficult and can result in more truths being ignored. Without criticizing and discussing beliefs James’s idea of maximizing true beliefs is not…

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• ## The Ethics Of Belief Clifford Analysis

Some people get so caught up in their beliefs that they are blind to investigating their belief for good reason. In the case of some people, emotions and thoughts control their beliefs and that overpowers the duty to find good reason. While it is wrong to hold an unsound belief it is also immoral to act on these beliefs, as the ship-owner did in the example. Once someone believes something their ability to evaluate the belief becomes harder. Clifford’s central idea that a belief is not morally correct because of the issue of right or wrong but rather if the belief had been founded on proper grounds or if it was entertained on improper grounds is displayed in the text through fictional…

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• ## Neutral Questions In Research

Which doesn 't state that it is, its just supposed to be. Since technology is a man made product then there has to be bias because human sciences show that humans cannot be objective. So human bias will be implemented in that technology which results with technology still have bias with it. So a question can be biased to some extent because natural sciences show that objectivity is present in…

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• ## The Pros And Cons Of Epistemology

In the Milgram experiment, two out of the three principles are brought into question: respect for person 's, and concern for welfare. Respect for person 's, states that humans should not be treated as means to an end (51). This section, states that participants will be: aware of the purpose of the research, how it will be conducted, and the risks involved (51). However, if the participants are given all the details, it would be difficult to avoid reactive effects that occur when people know they are being monitored (52). Milgram’s experiment is tainted with deception, the participants believed they were shocking a real person, and were unaware that the learner was an associate of Milgram 's.…

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