Chemotherapeutic Resistance Case Study

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Question 6: List the principles of chemotherapeutic resistance. Write short note on the one you consider most important.
Answer:
Resistance describes reduction in effectiveness of drug to perform its normal function. It is the ability of microbes; bacterial, fungi, virus to resist the toxic effects of drugs and grow in the presence of the same concentration of drug that will normally kill or limit its growth.
The following are the principles of chemotherapeutic resistance:
• Pharmaceutic factors which include drug formulation/compounding, dosage forms, packaging and storage.
• Pharmacokinetic factors which include drug absorption, dissolution, metabolism and excretion
• Pharmacodynamics factors/mutation example of which is an alteration in
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Acyclovir.
• Late protein synthesis and processing can be blocked by methisazone (variola) protease inhibitors
• Packaging and assembly can be blocked by rifampin(vaccinia)
• Viral release can be blocked by neuraminidase inhibitors (influenza).
Question 2
Which of the classes of antifungal agents will you consider to be ideal? Why or why not?
Answer
I consider echinocardins to be the ideal antifungal agent and the most suitable chemotherapeutic agent against fungal infections because of its following properties;
i. Its target of action is plasma cell wall which the humans lack; hence its ability to kill the parasite and spare the host cell which is the principle of selective toxicity. It is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics that interfere with fungal cell synthesis by inhibition of beta(1,3) D-glucan synthase. Loss of cell wall glucan results in osmotic fragility which can expand the cell causing it to burst. ii.Its effectiveness against spectrums of fungal infections including candida species and non-albican isolates resistant against fluconazole including pneumocystis carinii. iii.Its low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)which accounts for minimal side

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