Essay about Binge Drinking and How It Applies to the Ottawa Charter

893 Words Jan 22nd, 2013 4 Pages
Classical conditioning
Classical conditioning is a form of basic learning the body automatically responds to a stimulus. One stimulus takes on the properties of another. The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) is credited for discovering the basic principles of classical conditioning whilst he was studying digestion in dogs. He developed a technique for collecting dog’s salivary secretions. Pavlov (cited in Eysneck M.W 2009) noticed that the dogs would often start salivating before they were given any food or saw the feeding bucket or even when they heard the footstep of the laboratory assistant coming to feed them. Quite by accident Pavlov had discovered that the environmental control of behaviour can be changed as a result
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It will tend to be repeated under particular circumstances. (Cited in Gross R 2010). For example a mother picking up a crying infant and if the baby stops crying when picked up, the probablility of the mother repeating the same behaviour increases since the cessation of the baby’s crying is a reinforced.(Gerry, K et alt page45) . Reinforcers can also be primary or secondary. Primary reinforcers are our basic needs like food, water and shelter. Secondary reinforcers are events that have become rewarded through their association. For example money, because money can satisfy people needs it takes on reinforcing characteristics of its own.
Operant conditioning can be used in behaviour management and in education, for example children are rewarded when they do well in school and punished if they fail, if they see someone getting rewarded they are more likely to copy the good behaviour. Operant conditioning can also be used to help people with addictions along with classical conditioning,for example in alcohol and drug addiction. Operant conditioning is also used in pain management and in social skills training. It has also been used to reward schizophrenic patients for good behaviour. For example given them tokens in exchange for sweet when they behave well in hospital.(Aylon & Azrin,1968,cited in Eysenck 2009).
Social Learning
The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura (1965), has become

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