Cardiovascular System: Maintaining Homeostasis In The Body

The cardiovascular system is an integral system responsible for maintaining homeostasis in the body. It is composed of the muscular pumping organ, the heart, and a closed system of vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries. “A baby 's heart begins to develop at conception, but is completely formed by eight weeks into the pregnancy” (Stanford Children’s Health). As the heart reaches structural and functional maturation, it will involuntarily pump blood to the blood vessels to nourish cells with the oxygen and nutrients they need to carry out their metabolic processes.
Any disruption in the normal cardiovascular physiology results in disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that “Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number
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When the heart develops improperly in utero, the structure and function of the heart is affected. It is a frequent cause of childhood birth defects and deaths. Birth defects can be caused by “single gene defects, chromosomal disorders…environmental teratogens…maternal infectious diseases such as syphilis and rubella… [and] iodine and folic acid deficiencies (Bruneau, 2008).” Congenital heart defects can be classified based on defects that cause too much blood to be moved to the lungs, too little blood passing to the lungs, or not enough blood being circulated throughout the body. Congenital heart defects can range from simple to …show more content…
Examples that arise from too much blood moving to the lungs are Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), and Atrioventricular canal (AVC). In patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), the patent ductus arteriosus, a structure seen in all fetuses, fails to close. “Extra blood goes from the aorta into the lungs and may lead to "flooding" of the lungs, rapid breathing, and poor weight gain (Stanford). Atrial or Ventricular Septal defect occurs when there is a hole in the heart between the atria or ventricles respectively. Anomalies from normal blood pressure is usually seen with these defects. An atrioventricular canal manifests as a combination of structural defects such as ASD or VSD.
Too little blood reaching the lungs also cause many defects. Tricuspid atresia and pulmonary atresia are defects that fall under this category. Tricuspid atresia is categorized due to decreased pulmonary circulation and cyanosis from lack of oxygen. The tricuspid valve, an important component structure of the heart, is blocked and hinders blood from leaving the right atrium to the right ventricle. In the case of pulmonary atresia, the pulmonary valve is incapable of reaching full development. This inhibits blood floor from the right ventricles to the

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