Case Study Auscultate Caleb's Heart

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1. Dr. Baker spends a long time listening to (auscultating) Caleb’s heart.
a. Where on the thoracic surface do you auscultate to the tricuspid, mitral (bicuspid), pulmonary, and aortic valves?
The tricuspid valve is between the right atria and right ventricle. Therefore, you would auscultate the tricuspid valve on the left side of the heart, between the fourth and fifth rib (or intercostal space) and lower left sternum area. The mitral valve is between the left atrium and left ventricle. Therefore, you would auscultate the mitral valve on the right side of the heart, between the fifth and sixth rib (or intercostal space). The pulmonary valve is between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery. Therefore, you would auscultate the pulmonary valve
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Where do you think would be the best place to auscultate Caleb’s abnormal heart sound?
Based on the heart anatomy and ventricular septal defects, Caleb’s abnormal heart sound would be best auscultated between the lower right and left ventricles, around the interventricular septum. This would be an area where ‘swishing’ (or movement of blood) may be heard
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Another anatomical abnormality is patent ductus arteriosus—this condition is when two major arteries, the aorta and pulmonary, are connected and have abnormal blood flow and usually happens following birth. Before birth, the aorta and pulmonary arteries are connected by the ductus arteriosus for fetal blood circulation. However, immediately after birth up to a few days, the duct closes on its own as part of the normal development process. However, the duct doesn’t always close, which leads to the patent ductus arteriosus condition. It puts a strain on the heart and increases blood pressure in the pulmonary system.
6. What happens to Caleb’s systemic cardiac output as a result of his ventricular septal defect?
a. Due to the hole in the interventricular septum between the left and right ventricles, the normal volume that would occur, is lessoned during systole and prior to the aortic valve opening. Therefore, cardiac output is increased. This completely throws off the homeostasis balance in the body. Blood pressure rises and the pulmonary system is overworked.
7. One of the problems that worried Tiffany was that Caleb seemed to be breathing too hard all the time. Let’s consider how this symptom is related to his heart

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