resists current, and is measured in Ohm-meters (Ω-m). Electrical resistance (R) is the opposite of the flow of electrons, or the passage of an electrical current. Electrical conductivity (σ) is the opposite of resistivity and is measured in Siemens (S). Electrical conductivity is defined as; the degree to which a specified material conducts electricity, calculated as the ratio of the current density in the material to the electric field which causes the flow of current. In this experiment I am…
For example, if you have a resistor with a resistance of 3 ohms and the current at it being 1 amp the voltage drop at that resistor is 3 volts (3*1). If you have more than one resistor wired to that circuit you can check your math by adding all the voltage drops at the resistor together, the sum should equal to the voltage of the power source or battery. Parallel DC circuits differ from DC series circuits mainly in the way they are wired to their components. As opposed to series circuits in…
In this experiment, various electrochemical cells were measured and calculated to determine their electrical cell potential. In the electrochemical cell Zn (s) │Zn2+ (0.10 M) ││ Cu2+ (0.10 M) │ Cu(s), E cell potential was determined to be 1.040 V while the standard E˚ cell potential was 1.10 V. In the electrochemical cell Zn (s) │Zn2+ (0.10 M) ││ Cu2+ (1.0 M) │ Cu(s) E cell potential was determined to be 1.060 V while the standard E˚ cell potential was 1.10 V. In the electrochemical cell Cu (s)…
Fig. 12 a and b shows the Nyquist plots of the fresh and after 5th cycles for Li1.2Ni0.13Co0.13Mn0.54O2 electrodes, respectively, where as the shapes of the Nyquist plots are similar. All the EIS curves exhibit one semicircle in the high frequency region which represents interfacial charge transfer resistance between the surface film and the active cathode mass (Rct). While, the sloping line at the low frequency region represents Warburg resistance, which related to the lithium ion diffusion in…
circuit. How to use both Maximum Power and Norton’s Theorem properly, are to be explained in order to solve a circuit using these approaches. THEORY MAXIMUM POWER Maximum power states that a load receives max power from a network when it’s resistance is exactly equal to the Thevenin and Norton resistance of the network supplying the power (as shown below): If the load resistance is higher or lower than the Thevenin/Norton equivalent then there would be no maximum power continued on…
is resistance, which is measured in units called ohms. Resistance is a term that describes the forces that oppose the flow of electron current in a conductor. All materials naturally contain some resistance to the flow of electron current. We have not found a way to make conductors that do not have some resistance. If we use our water analogy to help picture resistance, think of a hose that is partially plugged with sand. The sand will slow the flow of water in the hose. We can say that the…
Terminology and units Current Current is a flow of electrical charge carriers, usually electrons or electron-deficient atoms. The common symbol for current is the uppercase letter I. Potential difference The potential difference between two points.The units for potential difference are Joules per coulomb, or volts. (1 volt = 1 Joule/coulomb). Electrical charge Electric charge is carried by the electrons ( negative charge) and protons (positive charge) within an atom. The…
I graduated from the University of Houston, Texas with a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering with Thesis in May 2011. My engineering work experience as an Engineer-In-Training began at En-Fab, Inc. in Houston, Texas from June 2011 and since then I am working as an Electrical Engineer in this company. My engineering experience at En-Fab, Inc. entailed being a member of the project engineering group where I performed calculations for sizing of the motor and branch circuit overload…
Electrical Properties AC Conductivity, Ac Resistivity, Dielectric loss, and Dielectric constant are electrical properties and measured as a function of frequency. AC Conductivity and Resistivity AC resistance (ρac) was recorded by LCR meter model 4275 in the frequency range 1MHz to 3GHz. AC conductivity was determined by using the value of Ac resistance. As we know, Ac Conductivity is reciprocal of Ac resistance can be calculated by the relation; ac =1/ρac (6) The variation of AC…
that electricity is the most versatile and easily controlled form of energy, and at the point of use it is practically loss-free and essentially non-polluting (I.E.C., 2015). However, as with most energy, electricity experiences a force that acts against its efficiency, known as resistivity or resistance. Resistivity is the material property that pertains to how difficult it is for…