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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Explain what microorganisms are and why an understanding of them is vital for all healthcare workers
microorganism is a living animal or plant that is so small that it can be seen only with a microscope. Some harmful microorganisms cause disease and are called pathogens. Study of pathogens/microorganisms helps scientists to develop bettern means of treating and preventing spread of disease
Define the term pathogen
pathogen is a harmful microorganism and/or disease producing agent.
Name and describe the essential factors that influence microbial growth
oxygen requiring microorganisms are called aerobes; those that cannot survive in presence of oxygen are called anarobes.
Nurtients are required for growth
Temperature, the temp that a microorganism grows best is optimal temperature whether it is hot or cold
Moisture is essential to grow either water or blood or milk
pH it can neither too acid or too akaline
Light, they need light for growth; some flourish in darkness
Describe how culture and sensitivity (C&S) reports and staining aid in the treatment of infectious diseases
Culture and Sensitivity (C&S) is ordered when infection is suspected or known and serves the following purposes: (1) identifies the pathogen (2) determine which treatment will eliminate the microorganism (3) monitors the response to therapy. A C&S report will indicate the name of the test ordered, type of specimen (blood, sputum), type of report (preliminary or final), colony count, type of microorganism and susceptibility testing. Also which antibiotics to which the organism is sensitive. Staining helps identify the microorganism
Identify the basic characteristics of the five main types of microorganisms
ALGAE resemble plant cells and rarely cause human disease
FUNGI are single-celled yeasts and multicelluar milds; eukaryotes (ring worm); yeast reproduce by budding; (thrush)
PROTOZOA visible under microscope
BACTERIA prokaryotes many cause illness
Describe the ways in which bacteria are classified
ability to colonize and invade the host; ability to resist or endure the antibacterial defenses of the host; ability to form substances that are toxic to the host.
Discuss ways to prevent the development of drug-resistant bacteria
take antibiotics only as prescribed; take antibiotics for the entire period; do not share antibiotics; avoid development of resistant strains; do not use antibiotics for viral infections.
Explain three basic ways in which infectious diseases are transmitted to people
EPIDEMIOLOGY study of ways by which diseases are transmitted to people.
DIRECT or indirect contact such as touching, kissing, sex
AIRBORNE such as dust particles and spores in the air; droplets from sneezing
VECTORS such as bites from infected insects, dogs, rodents
Name the components of the chain of infection.
RESERVOIR in which the pathogen can live and grow
PORTAL OF EXIT from which it can leave the reservoir
VEHICLE to transmit the organism
PORTAL of ENTRY through which the microorganism can enter the host
SUSCEPTIBLE host in which the microorganism can find a reservoir
Suggest ways to stop the spread of infection at which point in the chain.
At Reservoir you can sterlize the instruments, disenfect the floors, change dressings promptly
At Portal of Exit you can wash hands thoroughly
At the Portal of Entry you can keep skin dry and clean; clip nails carefully, frequently reposition client with impaired mobility, use sterile technique
Ssceptible Host you can stop infection by getting rest and adequate fluid intake, practice infection control
Describe the effect of toxins on the body.
toxins cause harmful effects by traveling through the circulatory system to damage other body cells, toxins can interrupt cellular metabolism, stop protein synthesis and destory cell membranes
Describe factors that help determine if a pathogen will cause disease.
strength of the body's natural defenses; depends the access in which they gain entry for instance Strep only cause disease in the respiratory system; Large number os microorganisms are needed to cause infection; the pathogen virulence (it's strength to cause disease)