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147 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Online Medical Direction

Direction given over the phone or radio directly from the medical director or designated physician

Off-Line Medical Direction

Consitsts of standing orders, training, and supervision authorized bt the medical director

Direct Protocols

Written Document

Standing Orders

Written Documents, signed by the EMS system's medical director, that outline specific directions, permissions, and sometimes prohibitions regarding patient care; also called protocols

Indirect Protocols

Unwritten Document

What is the EMT's first priority

Personal Safety

What is the simplest yet most effective way to prevent disease?

Proper Handwashing

Know the blood-borne pathogens EMS providers would be at risk for contracting and what prevention strategies are availible for the various pathogens

Blood-borne Pathogens: HIV, Hep B, Hep C

Prevention Strategies: Wear gloves and make sure to be vaccinated

In patients who are responsive but unable to provide expressive speach, what can the provider do to alleviate fears and concerns for the patient

~Do not assume an aggressive posture

~Make good eye contact, but do not stare

~Speak calmly, confidently, and slowly

~Never threaten the patient, either verbally or physically

~Be attentive to facial expressions, body language, and eye contact - your own and your patients

~Constant communication

Expressed Consent

Specific authorization to provide care expressed by the patient

Implied Consent

Legal assumption that treatment was desired

Informed Consent

Permission for treatment given by a competent patient after the potential risks, benifits, and allternitives to treatment have been explained


Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

How does HIPPA affect EMS providers?

Ensures the Patient information is protected

What are the components of negligence (4)

1. EMT's duty to act

2. Cause

3. Breach of duty

4. Real or perceived damage

What are some factors to consider when communicating with an elderly patient?

~You should present yourself as competent, confident, and caring.

~You must take charge of the situation, but do so with compassion.

~Approach an older patient slowly and calmly.

~Allow plenty of time for the patient to respond to your questions.

~Watch for signs of confusion, anxiety, or impaired hearing/vision.

~The patient should feel confident you are in charge and that everything possible is being done for them.

What are some tips for EMS providers when doing radio transmission?

~Ensure clear frequency before speaking.

~Wait one second before speaking.

~Hold microphone 2-3" away from mouth.

~Address the unit you're callling and provide the name of your unit.

~Keep transmission brief.

~Use clear text.

~Avoid using codes or agency-specific terms.

~ Use clear, calm and monotone voice.

~Avoid using slang.

~Remember airwaves are public and can be picked up by scanners.

~Do not use names, protect the privacy of the patient.

~Indicate end of transmission by saying "over".

~Do not provide a diagnosis of the patient's problem.

~Use EMS transmissions only for EMS communications.

~Monitor background noise.


Farther away from the orgin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk


Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk


Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above


Away from the head end or the lower part of a structure or the body; below


Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of


Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of


Toward or at the back of the body; behind


Toward or at the front of the body; in front of


Also known as the frontal plane- is any vertical plane that divides the body into ventral and dorsal (belly and back) sections


Divided into top and bottom


Lying face up


Divided into left and right


Lying face down


Sitting upright

Shock Position

Person who is laying flat on his or her back with the legs elevated approximately 8-12 inches


Referes to one of a series of variations ona a lateral recumbent or 3/4 prone postition of the body


Foward facing part of the hand in the anatomic postion


Bottom of the foot


Posterior surface of the body, including the back of the hand


Motion towards the midline


Motion away from the midline


Toward or at the body surface


Away from the body surface


Between a more medial and a more lateral structure

Why should EMT's have a strong working knowledge of medical terminology?

~Understanding key terms, acronyms, symbols, and abbriviations is important for effective communications and dcocumentation.

~Help you determine the meaning of an unknown term by breaking the word apart

~Once you understand medical jargon, you will be able to communicate effectively with other members of the EMS, healthcare, and public safety.

Know the parts of the Brain:


Occipital lobe

Parietal lobe

Frontal lobe

Temporal lobe


Know the parts of the Brain Stem



Medulla Oblongata

Know the parts of the Spinal Column

Spinal cord

Bony spine (vertebrae)

Know the parts of the CNS


Spinal cord

What is the normal Blood Pessure range for an adult

90-130 Systolic BP

What is the normal Pulse Rate for an adult

60-100 BPM

What is the normal Respiratory rate for an adult?

12-20 Breathes Per Minute


Disorder in which cholesterol and calcium bouild up inside the walls of the blood vessels, formind plaque, which eventually leads to partial or complete blackage of blood flow


A disease that causes the arteries to thicken, harden, and calcify

How should an Emt properly restrain a patient

Speak in a calming matter.

Develop a plan

Minimum of 5 personnel

Establish a team leader

Place patient supine

Secure to stretcher

Secure one arm above the patient and the other at the side

Secure the legs

How can you stop the spread of disease on equiptment and surfaces

Decontaminate after each use

Standard Precuations

Protecive measures that have traditionally been developed by the CDC

When should Standard Precuations be used

In dealing with objects, blood. body fluids, and other potential exposure risks of communicable disease

What does an intial assessment address

General impression

Mentation, AVPU, PPTE

Chief Complaint




Pupil Assesment


Pupils Equal and Round Regular in size React to light

What are some Negative Findings when doing a Pupil Assessment

Become fixed with no reaction to changes in light

Dilate with introduction of a bright light and constrict when the light is removed

React sluggishly instead of briskly

Become unequal in size

Become Unequal when a bright light is introduced into or removed from the eye

What causes the Negative Findings in a Pupil Assessment

Injury of the brainstem or brain

Trauma or Stroke

Brain tumor

Inadequate oxygenation or perfusion

Drugs or toxins (CNS depressions)

How should the airway of a truama patient be opened?

Insert an oral airway (oropharyngeal)

Insert a nasal airway ( Nasopharyngeal)

Jaw thrust maneuver

How should the airway or a medical patient (not trauma) be opened

Head tilt chin lift

Jaw thrust

What is a Chief Complaint

Most serious thing a patient is concerned about


A dangerous conditon in which the body tissue and cells dont have enough oxygen

How is Hypoxia Treated?

Give additional oxygen to the patient and into the body (blood) as quickly as possible

What occurs when a patient is breathing rapidly and shallowly?

Sign of Tachypnea. Could be indication of respiratory disorder. The tidal volume will decrease. The minute volume would change depending on the numer of respirations

Tidal volume

Amount of air moved during one breath

Minute Volume

The volume of air moved through the lungs in one minute. Calculated by multiplying tidal volume and respiratory rate; also reffered to as minute ventilation

Hypoxic Drive

Backup system to control respiration

What percentage of oxygen does a NRB (Non-Rebrether Mask) deliver?


What percentage of Oxygen does a BVM (Bag Valuve Mask) deliver


What percentage of oxygen does a NC (Nasal Canula) deliver


What percentage of oxygen does Mouth to Mask delvier?


What does Weezing indicate?

Indacates a narrowing of the lower airway

What does Rhonchi Indicate?

Indicates a presence of mucus in the lungs

What does Rales (Crackles) indicate?

Indicates fluid in the lungs

What does Stridor indicate?

Indicates that the patient has an airway onbstruction in the neck or upper part of the chest

What does Snoring indicate?

indicates an upper airway obstruction, usually caused by the tounge or a foreign body


Amount of mediaction given


Reson for which a medication is given


Situation in which a drug should not be given

Side effect

Any action of a drug other than the desired one


To bind or stick to a surface


Process by which medications travel through body tissues


The state of a substance when its particles are mixed with, but undissolved, in a fluid or solid

What is meant by medical direction approval related to EMT medications

As an EMT, you can only administer medications for which you have an order from medical control

What are the 6 patient rights

Right patient

Right medication

Right dose

Right route

Right time

Right documentation

Right to refuse

What is the mechanism of action for Oral Glucose

When absorbed, provides glucose for cell use

What is the mechanism of action for Activated Charcoal

Absorbs toxic substances in the digestive tract

What is the mechanism of action for Nitro

Relaxes vascular smooth muscle causing vasodilation which results in increase coronary blood flow

What is the mechanism of action for Asprin

Decreses paltelet aggregation, thus increasing blood flow through the coronary arteries

What is the mechanism of action for Albuterol

Dilates brinchial smooth muscle

Whar is the mechanism of action for Epinephrine

Bronchodilator and vasoconstriction

What is the mechanism of action for Oxygen

Reverses hypoxia, provides O2 to be absorbed by lungs

What is the mechanism of action for Narcan

Compete with opiates at the opiate receptor sites

What is the mechanism of action for MDI



Rapid sinus rhythem; over 100BPM


High blood pressure; systolic over 140


Slow sinus rhythem; under 60


Low blood pressure; systolic under 90

What are the three components of the perfusion triangle


Pipes- vessels

Container- blood

Septic shock

~Severe bacterial infection

~Signs and syptoms: Warm skin or fever, Tachycardia, low Bp

~Treatment: Transport promply, admisister high-flow O2, assist ventilations, keep patient warm, consider ALS

Neurogenic shock

~Damaged cervical spine, which causes widespread blood vessel dilation

~SS: Bradycardia, Low BP, SIgns of neck injury

~T: Secure airway, Spinal immobilization, Assist ventilations, Administer high-flow oxygen, Preserve body heat, Transport promptly, Consider ALS

Anaphylactic shock

~Extreme life-threatening allergic reaction

~SS: can develop within seconds, Mild itching or rash, Burning skin, Vascular dilation, Generalized edema, Coma, Rapid death


Hypovolemic Shock

Loss of blood or fluid

Distributive Shock

Widespread dilation off the small arterioles, small venuales, or both

Cardiogenic Shock

Inadequate heart function, disease of muscle tissue, impaired electrical system, disease or injury

Psychogenic shock

Shock due to emotional stress or to seeing an injury or accident

What are the physical changes that happen in the Compensated stage of Shock

Altered mental status, weak rapid or absent pulse, shallow rapid breathing, air hunger, feeling of impending doom

What are the physical changes that happen is the Decompensated stage of Shock

Falling blood pressure, ashen, mottled or cyanotic skin, dilated pupils, poor urinary output

What are the physical changes that happen in the Irreversable stage of Shock

Shock has progressed to far

During cheast compression what are some pearls to ensure they are effective?


2-2.4 (5cm) in adults

2 in children

1/3 in peds

What is the correct compressio to ventilation ratio for adult cpr


What is defined as BLS care?

Noninvasive emergency life saving care that is used to treat medical conditions, including airway obstruction, respiratory arrest, and cardiac arrest

What should the EMT do if a pateint who requires the use of an AED has a medication patch

Remove the patch

Why do infants and children go into cardiac arrest?

Respiratory arrest

What does the assessment of the medical patient usually focused on

Oral history

What is required during a comprehensive neurologic assessment

~Evaluate level of conscious (AVPU)

~Determine orientation (PPTE)

~Use the Glasgow Coma Scale on a patient with an altered mental status

How can an EMT prevent the infection of certian communicable diseases such as whooping cough or pertussis

Be current on your DTaP vaccine.

Put a mask on your patient and yourself

What is a HEPA or N-95 Mask?

A type of rebreather mask that you would where around patients with potential tuberculous

What four items are assessed during a respiratory assessment

Rate of breath




In what area does respiration occur?


What is the difference between respiration and ventilation

Respiration is the exchange of gasses in the alveoli and ventilation is the exchange of air between the lungs and the environment

Asthma is a respiratory issue that is a response of what system

Immune system

Know blood flow through the heart

Superior/Inferior Vena Cava

Right Atrium

Tricuspid valve

Right Ventricle

Pulmonary Artery


Pulmonary Vein

Left Atrium

Mitral Valve

Left Ventricle


Sinoastril Node

Elecrical current begins and passes through both atria

Atrioventricular Node

Bridge of special electrical tissue between atria and ventricle

Bundle of His

Between ventricles

Purkinje fibers

In each side of ventricle

What are the risk factors of an AMI (modifiable)

Smiking, physical activity, cholesterol levels, hypertension, diabetes, obesity

What are the risk factors of an AMI (non-Modifiable)

Gender, heredity, genetics, age

What are the Contraindications for Oral Glucose

Nausea, vomiting, inability to swallow/ no gag reflex

What are the Contraindications for Activated Charcoal

OD of corrosives, caustics, or petroleum substances

What are the Containdications for Nitro

Cerebral hemorrhage, use sexual enhancement drug within 24-36 hours, systolic bp less than 100

What are the Containdications for Asprin

Bleeding disorders or GI bleeding

What are the Containdications for Albuterol

tachydysrhythmias or MI

What are the Containdications for Epinephrine

None in anaphylaxis

What are the Containdications for Oxygen

Very rarely in patients with COPD

DON'T use near open flames as it will support combustion.

Never withhold oxygen from a patient

What are the Containdications for Narcan

None in the emergency setting

What are the Containdications for MDI

Tachycardia, MI

What are the Structures of the upper airway







What are the Structures of the Lower airway





How is a NPA inserted

Size airway, lubricate tip, insert into larger nostril, face bevel owards septum, gently advance airway until resistance is met, rotate 180* and continue to insert

How is an OPA inserted

Size airway, open pts mouth, hold airway upside down, rotate airway 180*, insert airway until the flange rests on the patient's lips

How does Nitro help cardiac patients increase blood flow in the coronary arteries

Relaxes vascular smooth muscle causing vasodilation which results in increased coronary blood flow

How does Aspirin help cardiac patients increase blood flow in the coronary arteries

Decreases platelet aggregation, thus increasing blood flow through the coronary artery

Why is an epi-auto injector an advantage to administer epinephrine

It is a pre-metered dose prescribed to the patient

How often do you reassess stable patients

Every 15mins