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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Selective attention is the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input

Short term memory ( STM)

Short term memory

Short term memories are held for up to 30 seconds or more

If an incoming sensory message is important enough to enter consciousness, that message will move from sensory memory to the next stage of memory called short term memory.

Long term memory

the system into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently.

similar to a computer hard drive.

when you take a midterm in psychology class what type of memory would you rely on


Multiple choice test questions typically rely on_______while essay questions rely on_______

recognition; recall

The semantic network model of memory suggest that the_____nodes you must pass through to access information, the longer it will takefor you to recall information.


Research has demonstrated you can enhance your memory for specific words if you think about it meaning, how it can be used, and by giving a personal example of its use. This is best accounted for by which model of memory?

Level of processing model

The steps to memory can best be described as follows

Putting it in, keeping it in, getting it out

According to Sperling, what is the capacity of iconic memory?

Everything that can be seen at one time.

Learning can be best described as

A relatively permanent change in behavior

Michael noticed that whenever he moves his dogs food dish,his dog would come into the kitchen and act hungry and excited. He reasons that because he feed the dog using that dish, the sound of the dish had become a (n)

Conditioned stimulus

Which of the following statement is essential to classical conditioning?

The CS and UCS must come close together in time

The study by Keller and Marian Breland sound that instinctive drift in animal behavior is

Genetically determined and not under the influence of learning

Studies by Keller and Marian Breland found that many animals exhibit instinctive drift. What does this mean?

The animals studied would learn skills through reinforcement but eventually revert back to the genetically control patterns of behavior

Neurofeedback is a form of_______ and works to change apersons_________ through a series of reinforcements.

Biofeedback; brain activity

Which theory is commonly referred to as the "aha!"phenomenon

Köhler's insight theory

What is the correct sequence of the four elements of observational learning

Attention, memory, imitation, desire

Darla have noticed Health some of her friends have lostweight and glide trim by exercising one to two hours each day. However, she has no plans to imitate their behavior. What component of Bandura's model of observational learning will explain why Darla has not started a similar weightloss program?

Darla is not motivated nor does she have to decide to begin the program.

Positive reinforcement results in a______ in the targetbehavior and negative reinforcement result in a________ in the target behavior

an increase; a decrease

Melinda has a terrible headache. If she take some aspirin soas to make her headache go away, this would be an example of

Negative reinforcement

What is the relationship between negative reinforcement andpunishment?

Negative reinforcement strengthens a response while punishment weakens a response

Where do secondary reinforces get their power from?

Pavlov's classical conditioning

To a dog______ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas_______ is an example ofsecondary reinforcer.

Dog food; a frisbee

Research by Stephen Maier suggest that learned helplessness may be due to a higher level region of the brain known as the_____ which helpssubjects determine what is controllable

Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)

Jodi failed repeatedly in college algebra. Finally, she gaveup and was seriously considering dropping out of college. One day, her bestfriend offered to personally help her if she signed up for college algebraagain, but she refused. What content might explain her reluctance

Learned helplessness

Denise is grounded for coming up home after curfew.Additionally, her parents have taken away her cell phone for a month. Losing her cell phone privileges an example of Punishmentby removal

Punishment by removal

Little Jimmy's mother was upset to find that Jimmy had not picked up his building blocks after repeated requests to do so. The next morning, Jimmy found all his blocks had been picked up and put into a bag onthe top of the refrigerator. Jimmy's mother told him that he couldn't play withhis blocks for the next two days. Which type of discipline did she use?

Punishment by removal

The pineal gland receives instructions from the

to release suprachiasmatic nucleus; melatonin

Pineal Gland

Endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum that secretes melatonin

Robert has had difficulty sleeping for the past 6 months andhis body seemingly no longer differentiates between night and day his Dr.believes the problem lies with Roberts endocrine system what gland will hisphysician focus on


The sleep–wake cycle typically follows a 24–hour cycle andis regulated by the

suprachiasmatic nucleus

Which of the following is involved in determining when we sleep?

body temperture

A person who relies heavily on sleeping pills or alcohol tosleep might experience the following night.

REM rebound

Sleepwalking occurs in ________ sleep, whereas nightmares occurs in ___________sleep.

N3 (NREM Stage 3); REM

Your doctor has told you that your youngest son suffers from somnambulism. What is another name for somnambulism?


If you find yourself lying in bed unable to sleep for morethan 20 minutes, what should you do?

Get out of bed and find some light activity to do (e.g., reading a book)

In which disorder do people tend to snore in a very loud manner?

sleep apnea

Very young infants who suffer from sleep apnea may be moreat risk for SIDS, or sudden infant death infant syndrome. Why might these infants have difficulty breathing?

The brain stem is not yet fully mature

Sigmund Freud psychoanalysis focused on

Early childhood experiences

Calvin had a dream about his dog Snoopy in which he constantly looked for him but couldn't find him. In reality, Calvin's dog had died after beinghit by a car. According to SigmundFreud, his dream in which he was searching for his dog is an example of ____________ , while the inner meaning that he misses his dog terribly is an example of ___________

manifest content, latent content

In Freud's theory, the actual content of dream is called

manifest content

Freud says that dreams are a means of

wish fulfillment

Who is considered to be the father of African American psychology

Francis Cecil Sumner

Aaron has no memory of how he got home from a party. He then convinced himself that he must have been abducted by aliens while walking home.Subsequently, he is hypnotized in an attempt to help increase his memories ofthat evening. Based on the research of memory recall through hypnosis, what might we learn?

Aron made annoyingly create false memories of what happened that night to justify his beliefs.

Raven has just finished writing a list of nonsense wordsgiven to her by her psychology instructor as part of a class activity. She has 100 % recall at the end of class. According to Ebbinghaus's curve of forgetting, how quickly will Raven likely forget about 40% of the information she has just learned?

Within the first 20 minutes after leaving the class

Michael finds that most of his dreams are little more than random images that seemingly have been put into a strange storyline. Which theory of dreams best explains this?

activation–synthesis hypothesis

Your friend tells you she is seeing a therapist who wishes to use hypnosis as part of her therapy. However, your friend isconcerned that she might be hypnotized without knowing it. What might you tell her?

That you actually hypnotize yourself and you cannot be hypnotized against your will

Bobby agreed to be hypnotized during a comedy routine. While hypnotized, he stood on his chair and crowed like a rooster. Later, when his friends asked why he did this, Bobby replied that he didn't know, it must have been because he was hypnotized. What theory best explains his behavior?

the social–cognitive explanation of hypnosis

According to Calvin Hall, what are most dreams centered around?

everyday life

Jackie has found that when she tries to quit drinking, she gets headaches, has night sweats, and shakes uncontrollably.

Such a reaction is an example of withdrawal

As consequences to stopping drug use, headaches, nausea,shaking, and elevated blood pressure are all signs of


What drug's physical withdrawal symptoms include severe mood swings (crash),paranoia, extreme fatigue, and an inability to feel pleasure?


Which of the following statements about nicotine is true?

In terms of addictive power, nicotine is more powerful than heroin or alcohol.

Typically, narcotics have the ability to

suppress the sensation of pain.

is a tranquilizer that is also known as the "daterape" drug.


Most studies of marijuana's effects have found that

it creates a powerful psychological dependency

Henry Gustav Molaison (H.M) suffered from profound anterograde amnesia after his_______ were surgically removed in an attempt to control his seizures


Henry Gustav Molaison known as H.M., was unable to form new declarative memories. He suffered fromwhat psychologists call

Anterograde amnesia

Which psychologist dared to ignore the whole consciousness issue and return to a study of scientific inquiry by focusing on observable behavior

John Watson

In Watson's experiment with little Albert, the conditioned stimulus was

The white rat

Which perspective would a researcher be taking if she were studying a client early childhood experiences and his resulting development of self


Cognitive universalism tends to______the linguistic relativity hypothesis



How the mind allows people to function in the real world how they work play and adapt to their surroundings

Which of the following early psychologists would have been most likely to agree with the statement "The study of the mind should focus on how it functions in everyday life"?

William James

The ability to reach for and pick up her book is largely due to the functions of the ________pathway of the _________nervous system?

Motor, somatic

Involuntary muscles are controlled by the________nervous system


As you take notes your heartbeat at a normal rate your breathing is normal and your stomach slowly digests your earlier meal. What division of the peripheral nervous system is currently in action?


Central Nervous System consists of

Brain and spinal cord

Sensory neuron A Neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system.

Also called afferent neuron

Motor Neuron

A neuron that carries messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body. Also called the efferent neuron

Peripheral nervous system

All nerves and neurons hat are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself

Which part of the brain is involved in the creation of memories and is often linked to Alzheimer's disease?



Responsible for the formation of long term memories.

Cerebral hemisphere

The two sections of the cortex of the left and right sides of the brain

What part of the brain can sometimes be referred to as the"rind" or outer covering

In which of the following lobes of the cortex would you find the primary visual cortex?

The ability to detect changes in temperature, pressure, and the body position is due in part to the functions of the _________lobe


Glial cells are

Fatty cells that provide support for neurons to grow on, deliver nutrients to neurons, produce muslin to coat axons

Myelin is a

Fatty substance produced by certain Glial cells that coat axons of neurons to insulate, protect and speed up the neural impulse, also helps to clean up waste products and dead neurons

Olfactory receptors project directly to the ____________ , and are unique in that signals do not first connect to the thalamus.

olfactory bulbs

Endocrine glands

Secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream

Pineal Gland

Endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum that secretes melatonin
Thyroid gland
Endocrine gland found in the neck that regulates metabolism
Endocrine gland that controls the levels of sugar in the blood

Synapse– synaptic gap

Microscopic fluid–filled space between the rounded areas on the end of the axon terminals of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell

Alexis and Teresa are synchronized swimmers for their college swim team. They often work long hours to ensure the movements in their routine are perfectly time what part oftheir brains must Alexis and Teresa rely most upon



The upper part of the brain consisting of the two hemispheres on the structures that connect them

Which brain structure relays incoming sensory information?


Your psychology professor refers to this as the great relay station of the brain what part of the brain is she referring to?


Thalamus is part of what system

Linnie system. Which is located in the center of the brain

Action potential _________ The release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon

Allows positive sodium ions to enter the cell.

Corpus callosum

Thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemisphere

Which part of the neuron carries messages to other cells

Which of the following is NOT a function of glial cells
Generating action potentials

Adrenal glands

Endocrine glands located on top of each kidney they also secrete over 30 different hormones to deal with stress regulate salt intake and they provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence


Basic building block of consciousness