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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
motivation
need that energizes behavior and direct to a goal
drive reduction theory

a physiological state that creates a drive to motivate people to satisfy need

hierarchy of needs
only when basic need is satisfied, higher need can be satisfied

instinct evolutionary theory

we are pre-programmed

physiological need

basic need for surviving and reproducing

instinct

complex behavior with fixed pattern, it is unlearned and species specific

Intrinsic motivation

driven by interest of a task

extrinsic motivation

driven by outside reward; exist outside of an individual

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of need

certain needs have priority over others

criticisms of hierarchy

beyond physiological need and safety need, the priority varies between different cultures

arousal theory

people often motivated to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it.

Yerkes-Dodson Law

optimal arousal will cause optimal performance

physiology of hunger

bodily sensation that reflects a physiological need for calories; hypothalamus receives and interprets hunger and fullness signals from the body

ghrelin


leptin


PYY

hunger hormones that comes from stomach


long term fullness hormones that comes from fat cells, it decreases hunger and increase metabolism


ST fullness hormones that comes from intestine

hypothalamus

hunger or fullness signal receiver

Ghrelin

胃饥饿素hunger hormones, if inject ghrelin, people become intensely hunger and eat 30% more than usual

Leptin

瘦素long term fullness hormones which from fat cells, it increases metabolism and decrease hunger

bulimia nervosa

易饿症暴食症

anorexia nervosa

厌食症, people with anorexia have intense fear about being fat and have restricted schedule of eating

obesity

defined as having BMI of 30 or greater.

caveats to BMI

1.muscle weighs more than fat


2.weight distribution matters


3.many people considered obese by body fat percentage are missed by BMI

metabolism

the rate at which energy is used

emotion

a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity

James-Lange theory

a theory which asserts that stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain.

cannon-bard theory

A theory which asserts that stimulis simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain

schachter-singer(two factor) theory

after senses the stimuli, body's response and our interpretation work together and produce an feeling; arousal提供emotion一个生理基础,cognition提供emotion一个标签一个定义

spillover effect

arousal can spill over from one event to the next, influencing our response

the same physiological state can be interpreted as different emotions depending on the cognition effect.

fast pathways of processing of emotion

stimulus information travels from thalamus directly to amygdala with less detail; sometime we experience emotion before we know what cause them

slow pathways of processing of emotion

stimulus informaiton travels from thalamus to cortex then to amygdala and it has more detail but longer processing time

universality of expression

the hypothesis that emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone


1.各国各民族都能看懂同一个表情


2.从未见过别人表情的人也能够表现出一样的表情

facial feedback hypthesis

hypothesis that emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify; expression cause emotion effect

drive

an arousal state of tension