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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the different types of piston rings?

Compression, oil control, and scraper rings.

What is the purpose of oil control rings?

To control the thickness of the oil film on the cylinder rings.

What may be the result of installing the piston rings incorrectly?

Excessive oil consumption.

What types of piston rods are commonly found in radial engines?

A master and articulating rod assembly.

What type of bearings are in general use in reciprocating engines today?

1) Plain bearings (crank, cam ring, connecting rods, accessory driveshaft)

2) Roller bearings (crank)

3) Ball bearings (supercharger impeller shaft, rocker arms, propeller thrust bearings)

What is indicated by valve blow by?

A hissing or whistle either from the intake (intake valve) or from the exhaust valve (exhaust valve).

What type of inspection must be made after sudden stoppage?

Inspection of the propeller drive shaft for misalignment and the propeller for track.

What instruments can be used to check a cylinder for out of roundness?

A dial indicator, a telescopic gauge or an inside micrometer.

What are the major components of a typical gas turbine?

Intake section, compression section, diffuser, combustion section, turbine section, exhaust section, accessory section.

What are the two principal types of compressors used in turbo jet aircraft?

Centrifugal and axial flow.

What are three types of combustion chamber systems.

Can, annular, and can-annular.

What is the purpose of the interconnector tubes between can-type combustion chambers?

To spread the flame to combustion chambers that don't have igniters.

What types of damage may be found when inspecting compressor blades?

Dents, scratches, gouges, galling, burns, pitting and cracks.

Where are stress rupture cracks most likely to occur on turbine blades?

On or across from leading or trailing edge of the blades. They usually appear as small hairline cracks at right angles to the edge length.

How are compressor blades attached to a disk-type rotor?

They are fitted into the disks by either bulb-type or fir-tree type roots, then locked by means of screws, locking wires, pins or keys.

What are the two most common types of thrust reverse?

The mechanical-blockage type and the aerodynamic blockage type.

What is one method of relieving thermal stress on a turbine disk?

Bleeding cooling air back onto the disk (75% of bleed air is for cooling purposes).

What may be an indication if a turbojet engine is out of trim?

The engine has a high exhaust temperature (EGT) at target engine pressure ratio (EPR) for takeoff.

What is a free turbine?

A turbine wheel that, rather than driving the compressor rotor, drives a propeller or helicopter transmission.

What type of FAA approval is required when a change is made to the engine principle of operation?

STC (Supplemental Type Certificate) and an FAA 337 form.

What type of approval is required when a change is made to the engine principle of operation?

A new Type Certificate and FAA 337 form.

What type of inspection is required after a hot start?

A hot section inspection using a boresope.

What are the main units in an engine fuel flow system?

A transmitter and an indicator for each engine.

What type of readout is indicated on a fuel flow system?

Pounds of fuel per hour.

What is the reason for monitoring fuel flow, other than consumption?

Whether the engine is operating at the correct fuel-air mixture for a given power setting.

What does an intake manifold pressure gauge indicate?

The absolute pressure in the intake manifold.

What are turbine engine tachometers designed to indicate?

The percent of rotor RPM.

What is turbojet EPR? (Engine Pressure Ratio)

The ratio between total turbine discharge pressures to total inlet pressure and is an indication of thrust being developed by the engine.

How can a turbine engine EGT be checked without operating the engine?

By checking the resistance to thermocouples and circuits.

When using a thermocouple type fire detection system, what happens if the engine overheats slowly?

It will not give a warning. A thermocouple depends on the rate of temperature rise.

What method other than the pressure gauge is used to indicate low pressure in a container?

Some aircraft have a low-pressure warning light in the cockpit.

What is the purpose of the yellow and red discharge plugs in a turbine engine fire extinguishing system?

The yellow plug indicates a normal discharge, and the red plug indicates thermal discharge.

What are two methods commonly used to distribute fire-extinguishing agent to the engine?

Many systems use perforated tubing or discharge nozzles to discharge the agent.

How is the extinguishing agent distributed from an HRD system?

From open-ended tubes.

How long does it take to discharge the agent in an HRD system?

One to two seconds

Which type of fire detection system gives a more complete coverage of a fire hazard?

A continuous-loop detector system.

What method is used to control the voltage in an AC generator?

A Voltage Regulator.

When installing single wires or wire bundles, how much slack is normally allowed between supports?

Slack should not exceed 1/2 in.

What precautions should be taken when running wires close to heating ducts or exhaust stacks?

The wires should be insulated with a high temperature material.

What factors must be considered in determining the proper grade of oil to use in a specific engine?

The operating load, rotational speeds and the operating temperatures.

What could be an indication of blocked oil cooler passages?

High oil temperatures.

What would be an indication of an inadequate oil supply?

Low pressure and high oil temperatures.

What two types of oil coolers are used in turbine engine lubrication systems?

Air-cooled and fuel-cooled.

What is the weight of aircraft engine oil?

Approximately 7.5 lbs per US gallon. (for JP: 6.8 lbs, for AvGas: 6 lbs)

What is the purpose of the oil dilution system?

It thins the oil by introducing fuel into the lubrication system which makes cold weather starting easier.

What is a magneto?

A special type of engine driven AC generator that uses a permanent magnet as a source of high voltage electricity for the spark plugs.

What is the E-gap position in a magneto?

A few degrees past the neutral position.

What is a dual magneto system?

Two magnetos in on housing, with one rotating magnet and a cam, common to two sets of breaker points and coils. On radial engines, the right magneto fires all the front plugs and the left fires all the rear plugs.

What is internal timing of a magneto?

Adjusting the breaker points to open when the rotating magnet is in the E-gap position.

What is the purpose of an impulse coupling used with a magneto?

To spin the magneto rapidly to produce a hot spark for starting the engine and at the same time, retard the timing for the next spark.

What is staggered ignition timing?

The firing of one spark plug before the other, instead of firing them simultaneously.

What type of ignition is used in most turbine engines?

Electronic Capacitor type.

When are turbine ignition systems normally in use?

When starting or restarting.

What are two types of igniter plugs?

Annular gap and Constrained gap.

Where are the fuel spray nozzles located in a turbine engine?

Either externally or internally, on the combustion chamber in such a way that the fuel can be sprayed into the combustion area.

What are the two most commonly used carburetors in small reciprocating engines?

Float type and pressure type.

What type of fuel control unit is used in a turbine engine?

Both hydromechanical and Electronic.

What is the purpose of a mixture control in a float type carburetor?

To control the fuel-air mixture as air density and altitude changes.

What will be the result of using excessively rich idle mixtures?

Spark plug fouling.

Where does a pressure injection carburetor obtain fuel pressure?

From the boost pump for starting and from the engine driven pump for normal operation of the engine.

In what position do you place the mixture control of a pressure injection carburetor to stop the engine?

The "idle cutoff" position.

What are the three types of carburetor icing?

Throttle, impact, and fuel vapor.

What is the purpose of strainers in a fuel system?

To prevent foreign matter from entering the carburetor.

What is the purpose of fuel selector valves?

A means of shutting off fuel flow, for tank and engine selection, for crossfeed and for fuel transfer.

What should be looked for when inspecting an engine driven fuel pump?

Leaks and security of mounting.

What is the purpose of an engine driven fuel pump?

To deliver a continuous supply of fuel at the proper pressure at all times during engine operation.

What is the most common type of fuel boost pump?

The electrically driven centrifugal-type.

What are three general causes of vapor lock?

Low fuel pressure, high fuel temperatures, and excessive fuel turbulence.

Turbine engine fuel pumps may be divided into what two distinct system categories?

Constant displacement and variable displacement.

What part of a gas turbine fuel system is very susceptible to the formation of ice?

The fuel filter.

How is the engine fuel system protected from ice formation?

By using fuel heaters.

Why is a micron fuel filter provided with a bypass valve as a necessary safety factor?

Because it clogs easily.

What are the three major parts of a reciprocating engine induction system?

The air scoop and ducting, the carburetor, and the intake manifold.

What effect does induction system icing have on engine performance?

Loss of power and erratic behavior.

What method is used to prevent or remove induction system ice in a reciprocating engine?

Heated air.

How is ice cleared in some aircraft induction systems if the heat is too low.

By a spray of alcohol, anilol, or mersol into the induction.

What are two general classifications of superchargers used in reciprocating engine induction systems?

Internally driven or externally driven.

What unit regulates the amount of exhaust gases to the turbine of a turbocharger?

The waste gate.

What types of power is used to control the position of the turbocharger waste gate on some engines?

Oil pressure to an actuating piston.

What is the most common means of regulating the cooling air flow through a radial engine?

Cowl flaps.

What is the purpose of the fins on engine cylinders?

To increase the effective size of the cylinder for cooling.

What other engine characteristics are designed to aid in engine cooling besides fins?

The engine cowling and baffles.

What should be done to cylinders when too much of the cooling fin area is broken off?

The cylinder should be replaced.

When should the cowling flaps be kept in the open position?

During ground operations.

What publication should be referred to before reprofiling cylinder cooling fins?

The manufacturer's service or overhaul manual.

What sources of power are used to operate the cowl flaps?

Electrical, hydraulic, or manual operation.

What are the main reasons that excessive heat in a reciprocating engine is undesirable?

It shortens the life of the engine parts, effects lubrication and combustion.

What is the source of air that is directed to engine bearings for cooling?

Bleed air from the compressor section.

What types of materials are used to make insulation blankets for turbine engines?

Stainless steel, aluminum foil, fiberglass, and silver foil.

What areas of a turbine engine are cooled by the secondary air passing through the engine?

The combustion chambers and turbines.

What is the purpose of an engine cowling?

It streamlines the engine and directs air over the engine for cooling.

What are two types of reciprocating engine exhaust systems?

The short stack and the collector.

What are the possible hazards of an exhaust system failure?

Carbon monoxide poisoning of the crew/passengers, partial or complete loss of power, or fire.

What is the purpose of a reciprocating exhaust system?

To dispose of high temperature, noxious gasses.

What happens to lead, zinc, or galvanized marks made on an exhaust system?

It changes the molecular structure of the metal.

What type of visual indication can usually be seen in the area of an exhaust leak?

Flat grey or sooty black streaks on the pipes in the area of the leak.

What is the usual cause of muffler and heat exchanger failures?

heat and vibration cracks, and stress ruptures.

Where are exhaust manifold and stack failures most likely to occur?

At welded or clamped points.

What is the most common cause of the waste gate unit malfunctioning in a turbocharger system?

Valve sticking from carbon buildup.

What is the purpose of the waste gate on a turbo-charger exhaust?

It controls the amount of exhaust gasses forced through the turbine. When the gate is fully closed, all of the gasses pass through.

What is the purpose of the propeller.

To create thrust

What are the two classifications of propellers?

Tractor (pull) and pusher type.

What type of propeller has the blade angle built into the propeller and cannot be changed?

A fixed propeller.

What is the purpose of the metal tipping on a leading edge of a wooden propeller?

To protect the propeller from flying particles in the air during landing taxiing, and takeoff.

What is the process of determining the positions of the tips of the propeller blades relative to each other?

Blade tracking.

What tool is used to determine propeller blade angle?

Universal propeller protractor.

What is the meaning of propeller blade "back" and "face"?

The curved side is the back and the flat side is the face. The face faces the engine and the back faces away.

What should be used to clean aluminum and steel propeller blades and hubs?

Suitable cleaning solvent and a brush or cloth.

What positions are used on a balance stand to check a two bladed propeller for static balance?

First the Vertical position, then horizontal.

How is feathering accomplished on a constant speed counterweight propeller?

Releasing the governor oil pressure allows the counterweights and feathering spring to move the blades to the feathered position.

What type of ice control systems are used for propellers?

Either fluid or electrical.

What is the purpose of a slinger ring on some propeller installations?

To transfer deicing fluid through a nozzle to the blades.

Explain blade tracking.

It's used to determine the position of the blade tips relative to each other. (no more than 1/16th of an inch)

Do the counterweights on a constant-speed propeller increase or decrease the blade angle?


An APU on a modern transport aircraft performs what functions?

It supplies ground electrical and pneumatic power.

What are the major components of an APU?

A small turbine powerplant generator and compressor.

What is used to start an APU?

Electrical or hydraulic power.

Does the APU use the same fuel supply as the main engines.


What controls the speed of the APU?

The governor on the speed control.

What is APU pneumatic power used for?

Air-conditioning, engine starting, troubleshooting and anti-icing.

Abrupt shutdown of an APU, without a cool down period could cause what?

Thermal shock.

How long is a typical cool down period?

3 minutes.