# Ci Engine Essay

1620 Words 6 Pages
This project is a group work, will be accomplished by three students in about 20 weeks. A single cylinder test engine block will be combined with a Ford cylinder head, then to be installed on the testbed coupled with an AC dynamometer. After connecting the control sensors, the engine will be tested in various operating conditions.

1.1 Background

Engine is a machine which converts any form of energy into mechanical energy, especially the combustion engine converts combustion energy into mechanical energy. The reciprocating internal combustion engine has two main types：SI engines, where the fuel is ignited by a spark; and CI engines, where the rise in the temperature and pressure during compression is sufficient to cause spontaneous ignition
Rudolf, a German inventor, patented the principle of the diesel engine in 1893. Since 1900, the diesel engine has been used in practically all the heavy industry and in any place that needs tremendous power. In the diesel engine, air alone is compressed in the cylinder; then, after the air has been compressed, injector vaporizes a charge of fuel into the cylinder, and ignition is accomplished by the heat of compression. The main difference between the diesel engine and the gasoline engine is: the diesel engine use a low-grade oil for fuel, which is ignited in the cylinder by the heat of air compression. However, the gasoline engine requires high-grade fuel oil, which is ignited by an electric spark after the gasoline has been mixed with air in carburettor, injected into the cylinder and the mixture compressed. …show more content…
For example, a body in which the distribution of an unknown variable (such as temperature and displacement) is required. Firstly, the region is divided into an assembly of subdivisions called elements, which are considered to be interconnected at joints, known as nodes. The combined elemental representations adequately approximate the variable. The distribution across each element may be defined by a polynomial (for example, linear or quadratic) or a trigonometric function. After the problem has been discretized, the governing equations for each element are calculated and then assembled to give the system equations. Once the general format of the equations of an element type is derived, the calculation of the equations for each occurrence of that element in the body is straightforward; it is simply a question of substituting the node coordinates, material properties and loading conditions of the element into the general format. After solving for the unknown nodal values, it is then simple to use the temperatures to calculate the elemental heat flows, or the displacements to find the strains and then the elemental stresses. The finite element method is a straightforward and logical procedure following a well-defined path.

• ## Heat Release Rate Model

The gross heat release rate is synthesized with an equation (3) having two separate Wiebe efficiency factors ap and ad in the two Wiebe functions often referred to as double Wiebe function [25, 33]. The direct experimental measurement of heat release rate is difficult. Therefore, a net apparent heat release rate calculated from the experimentally measured pressure-time profile and computationally calculated piston displacement profile along with heat loss to the cylinder wall using equation (1) is applied for validation. The diesel and DME oxidation reaction equations assuming complete…

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• ## The Effect Of The Fluidized Bed Model: Model Equations

The collocation method is explained in details in appendix A. As a result of using this method, equation (4.2) and its boundary conditions can be replaced by equations (4.3) and (4.4). And T1 can be used to express the average temperature of the solid particle at time (t). (4.3)…

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• ## The Inverse Heat Transfer Problem

Inverse heat transfer problem concept By considering standard one dimensional, transient heat conduction problem in a slab of thickness L the physical significance of inverse heat conduction problem can be better understood. Initially measurements distribution in slab is F(x). For time t>0 a transient heat flux f(t) is applied on the boundary conditions at x=0 and x=L^(). The mathematical formulation of this concept…

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• ## Fossil Fuels Research Paper

There are some limitations to fossil fuels like sulfur being burned causes it to convert to sulfur dioxide, which is SO2 and on the periodic table there’s one sulfur and two oxygen. When the sulfur is in contact with water it is converted into H2SO3. This is called sulfurous acid. There are many things in the world and the source of them is called carbon which every man made thing has. Gasoline is a mixture of of many straight chain, brained, and aromatic hydro which carbon molecules that make up undecane which has 11 carbon atoms and 24 hydrogen atoms which the chemical formula is C11H24.…

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• ## Nuclear Reactors

PWR reactors use water as both coolant and moderator. PWR works by having a primary cooling circuit using very high pressured water to flow through the core of the reactor, and another circuit that uses heated steam that had been generated to drive the turbine. (World Nuclear Association, 2015) Figure 4 - atypical boild water reactor (World Nuclear Association, 2015) 3.2 Boiling water Reactor (BWR) BWR is a similar design to PWR, except there is only one circuit in the system along in low pressured. BWR is design to work with less steam than PWR, hence a less moderating effect and more efficiency. (World Nuclear Association,…

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• ## Fuel Cells

Furthermore, in the straight pipe, a fully developed laminar assumption is satisfied under the condition that shape change is negligible. Numerical analysis technique the numerical analysis is performed by combining the governing equations related to the conservation of energy, conservation of mass and conservation of electrical charge to examine fluid distributions, heat transfers, mass transfers and electrochemical reactions. The assumptions used in developing the model are as follow: 1) Ideal gas law was employed for gaseous species. 2) The fluid flow in the fuel cell was laminar due to the low flow velocities and the small size of gas flow…

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• ## Principle Components Of Rankine Cycle

Rankine cycle Figure 2: Rankine cycle As mentioned earlier, the Rankine cycle also includes the possibility of superheating the vapor, as cycle 1–2–3–4–1. If changes of kinetic and potential energy are neglected, heat transfer and work may be represented by various areas on the T–s diagram. The heat transferred to the working fluid is represented by area a–2–2–3–b–a and the heat transferred from the working fluid by area a–1–4–b–a. From the first law we conclude that the area representing the work is the difference between these two areas—area 1–2–2–3–4–1. The thermal efficiency is defined by the relation For analyzing the Rankine cycle, it is helpful to think of efficiency as depending on the average temperature at which heat is supplied and the average temperature at which heat is rejected.…

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• ## Human Eye Model

In this model the ignition time of a particle in the explosive was equal to its distance to the ignition point divided by the detonation velocity. The *MAT_NULL material and *EOS_LINEAR_POLYNOMIAL equation of state in LS-DYNA were used to express the above constitutive relations. The interface of Euler and Lagrange elements at the detonation model were coupled using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method [36, 37]. This coupling method has the advantage that it gives complete freedom to create an optimal mesh for both the Lagrangian and Eulerian domains, compared to alternative coupling methods. The contact algorithm utilized in this study was ‘*CONTACT_ERODING_NODES_TO_SURFACE’, which is available in the LS-DYNA 970 .…

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• ## Bernoulli-Euler Beam Theory

M is the resultant internal bending moment calculated about the neutral axis of the cross section, y in this case is the thickness of the beam divided by two, and I is the moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area about the neutral axis . The final equation is, Equation 5 is utilized to calculate the deflection δ of the cantilevered beam at x = L when a load is applied at a point. Since we would not applying a specific load but knowing the displacement we solved this equation for P. There equation came out to be, After modifying the equations 2, 3, 4, and 6 and forming one equation, we were are then able to derive the equation which represents the Bernoulli-Euler equation to be, Equation 7, is utilized to relate the strain of a beam to the displacement in which is experience in part one of this lab to the strain that is calculated by the strain gage. We would then use equation 6 to find the uncertainty for the strain output. The equation we used was, The final equation used was to calculate the Poisson ratio of the material, in this case the beam the strain gage was attached to in part two.…

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• ## Step 2-Synthesis Essay

Step 1 - Synthesis A mixture of compressed CO2 and ammonia under 240 bar (g) pressure is reacted to form ammonium carbamate. This is an exothermic reaction, and heat is absorbed by a boiler to produce steam. The first reactor achieves 78% conversion of the carbon dioxide to urea and the liquid is then furthurly purified. Then, the second reactor receives the gas from the first reactor and recycles the solution. Conversion of carbon dioxide to urea is approximately 60% at a pressure of 50 bar (g).…

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