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149 Cards in this Set

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What is "Needs Assessment"?
The tasks for understanding the business problem or opportunity as well as to identify and evaluate inputs needed to develop an effective solution
What are the themes of Needs Assessment?
- Understand Stakeholders- Value Proposition- Goals and Objectives
What are the five tasks of Needs Assessment?
1) Define Business Need2) Determine Value Proposition3) Develop Project Goals4) Identify Stakeholders5) Determine Stakeholder Values
What is the mnemonic for the tasks of Needs Assessment?
BVGSV (Bold Vendors Get Some Value)
What is the purpose of the task "Define Business Need"?
To define or review a business problem or opportunity in order to develop a solution scope statement and/or to provide input to create a business case
What is a Business Case used for?
To request funds to invest in the recommended solution (preceding a formal project)
True or False: a BA may be brought in either before or after the creation of the business case
TRUE. The BA may or may not be involved with the creation of the business case.
The BA should push to ensure the business __ or ___ is clearly articulated, along with the solution scope statement
Problem or Opportunity
What is a Problem Statement?
A defintion of the problem, what the impact of it is, and what a successful solution to the problem would look like
__ __ is critical to do during Needs Assessment to understand which stakeholders will be impacted by the area undergoing analysis.
Stakeholder Identification
It is critical to identify and understand the __ __ or most beneficial opportunity for the organization.
Root Cause
What is a business problem?
Describes the situation that is hindering a business from achieving maximum value.
What must happen before moving forward with a project?
Stakeholder Approval of the business problem or opportunity statement
What is a business opportunity?
A description of an opportunity that will add value to the organization, consistent with the goals and objectives.
What is a project driver?
External factors that motivate an organization to invest in a new project
Market demand, Customer request, and Ecological Impacts are examples of what?
Project Drivers
What types of tools and techniques are used to Define Business Need?
Problem Solving and Opportunity, Root Cause Analysis
What tehcniques are included in Problem Solving and Opportunity identification?
- Benchmarking- Gap Analysis- Scenario Analysis- User Journey Maps- Value Engineering
What techniques are included in Root Case Analysis?
- Fishbone Diagram- Five Whys- Interrelationship Diagrams- Process Models
What is the output of the task Define Business Need?
Solution Scope Statement
What is a Solution Scope Statement?
A description of the solution scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints
What is the purpose of the task "Determine Value Proposition"?
To collect and analyze information using valuation tools and technqiues to contribute to determining the value proposition of hte initiative
True or False: A Business Case is complete without inclusion of the Value Proposition
FALSE. The value proposition is a key component of establishing a solid business case
Value is often stated as the ___ benefits the organization can expect to achieve.
What types of techniques are used to Determine Value Proposition?
What valuation techniques are used in Determining the Value Proposition?
- Cost-Benefit Analysis- Feasibility Analysis- Force Field Analysis- Kano Model- Net Promoter Score- Purpose Alignment Model- SWOT Analysis- Value Stream Map
What is the output of the task "Determine Value Proposition"?
Value Proposition (Business Case)
A business case is also known as what?
Value Proposition
Cost-benefit analysis is often stated in the following terms
- Payback Period- ROI (return on investment)- Weighted average cost of capital- NPV (Net present value)- Internal rate of return- Average rate of return- Discounted cash flow
What technique would best be used to determine the detractors of an organization?
Net Promoter Score
What is the purpose of the task "Develop Project Goals"?
To develop project goals and objectives by providing clarifiactions of business needs and solution scope in order to align the produce with the organization's goals and objectives
Project goals and objectives provide what to a project?
Context, Boundaries, and Driection
Project goals and objectives should always tie directly to what?
The organization's goals and objectives
What helps to ensure that the requirements are in scope and bring value?
Tracing back to the organization's goals and objectives
What is a goal?
Something broad that a business aims for to support its strategy and vision
What is an objective?
A specific target that an organization aims for the support its goals
What does the acronym SMART stand for?
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time-bounded
Goals typically pertain to what?
Increased revenue and market share, increased customer satisfaction, reduced costs, etc.
Goals are a way that ___ are broken down into actionable and measurable statement.
___ allowsus to reference the project's goals and objectives to those of the organization
What are the two levels of scoping?
Project and Solution/Product
What are the elements that should be included in a Scope Statement?
- Major features and functions- Interactions- Project Boundaries
What techniques are used to Develop Project Goals?
- Context Diagram- Ecosystem Map- Feature Model- Goal Model and Business Objective Model- Use Case Diagram
What are the outputs of the task Develop Project Goals?
Project Goals and Objectives, updated Solution Scope
What is the purpose of the task "Idenitfy Stakeholders"?
To identify the appropriate parties are represented, informed and involved
What steps should be taken to identify stakeholders?
1) Identify stakeholders affected by the solution2) Group stakeholders into categories, reflecting their involvement3) Define roles, responsbilities, and authority levels4) Anazlye stakeholders to assess their influence and attitudes regarding the project (especitally for negative attitudes or behaviors)
What is a "Stakeholder"?
Any individual or group who is affected by a change or project, or has influence over the outcome
What are some considerations when Identifying Stakeholders?
- Identify or refine stakeholder analysis- RACI Matrix- Complexity of Stakeholder Group- Attitude and Influence- Authority levels for Business Analysis work
Successful projects rely on ___ly identifying relevant stakeholders
True or False: missing stakeholders usually results in missed requirements or defining incorrect requirements
TRUE. This is almost always the case.
True or False: adaptive projects completely mitigate the risk associated with missed stakeholders
FALSE. While it does help, it doesn't eliminate the risk.
What does RACI stand for?
Responsible, Accountable, Consult, Inform
What is a RACI chart used for?
Identify and define stakeholder roles within the organization and project
What complexity factors need to be considered in regards to analyzing stakeholders?
- Number of stakeholders, business units, or systems- Diversity of needs- Impacted processes- Degree of uniforming across processes impacted
Attitudes towards what should be evaluated when analyzing stakeholders?
Attitudes towards:- Business goals, objectives & Solution approach- Business Analysis- Sponsor- Team Members- Collaboration
What are the influencing factors to evaluate in regards to stakeholders?
Influence on:- the project- the organization- good of the project- other stakeholders
What is "Influence"?
To be a compelling force on or produce effects from others. Proactively shift thinking, actions, and even emotional states of other people.
Approve business analysis deliverables and veto proposed requirements or solutions are examples of what?
Authority Levels for Business Analysis work
What techniques are used to identify and analyze stakeholders?
- Job Analysis- Organizational Chart- Personas- Role Differentiation (RACI)- Skills Assessment
What is the output of the task "Identifying Stakeholders" in Needs Assessment?
Stakeholder Register
What are some items that may be included on a Stakeholder Register?
Roles, Names, Category, Numbers, Location, Needs, Influence, Authority
What is the purpose of the Task "Determine Stakeholder Value" in Needs Assessment?
Provides a further analysis of identified stakeholders' requirements in order to "provide a baseline for prioritizing requirements"
What should be considered when determining Stakeholder Values in Needs Assessment?
Stakeholder Values, Product Scope Baseline
What does a Product Scope Baseline provide?
Clarity on the deliverables of the solution, and a scope that is accepted and approved in order to provide a baseline and boundaries for the product requirements
What are the type of tools and techniques that may be used when determining stakeholder value?
DIP OF BRNFS (Document Analysis, Interviews, Prototypes, Observation, Focus Groups, Brainstorming, Research, Non-functional Requirements Analysis, Facilitated Workshops, Surveys & Questionnaires)
What is the output of the task Determining Stakeholder Values?
Product Scope Baseline
What is the Product Scope Baseline?
The approved deliverables of the product that need to be satisfied in order for solution to consider the project a success.
What is the Product Scope Baseline used for?
A basis for stakeholder and solution requirements discovery
What is the mnemonic for the Problem Solving tools and techniques?
What are the Problem Solving tools and techniques (most used in Needs Assessment)?
Benchmarking, Gap Analysis, Scenario Analysis, User Journey Maps, Value Engineering
What is "Benchmarking"?
A technique for learning from key competitors and from an industry as a whole.
What is the goal of Benchmarking?
To discover industry best practices, and to recommend which ones to adopt.
What are the three characteristics of benchmarking?
Casual review of corporate documents, study of major aspects or a product (secret shopping), Disassembling and/or reproducing a product (reverse engineering)
Reverse Engingeering is a characteristic of what techinque?
Secret Shopping is a characteristic of what technique?
__ ___ is one form of benchmarking
Competitive Analysis
What is Scenario Analysis?
A way to describe a situation in terms of users of a solution and the interactions with the solution
What does Scenario Analysis look to explore?
The current situation from the perspective of the users and interacting systems, in order to better understand a problem or identify an opportunity
Which technique used in Needs Assessment can set the stage for Use Cases and User Stories later on?
Scenario Analysis
What is a User Journey Map?
Describes the journey of a user through the lifecycle process in a visual format
True or False: Journey Maps should always be developed in collaboration with actual users of a system
TRUE. You should not solely rely on the business analyst's assumptions of the journey
True or False: there is a standard notation for developing journey maps
FALSE. There is no set of standards for journey mapping.
What is Value Engineering?
A powerful methodology for solving problems and/or reducing costs while maintaining or improving perforamnce and quality requirements.
What does Value Engineering depict?
A cyclical process that identifies and analyzes opportunities to increase value.
What technique is meant to optimize project life cycle costs, save time, increase profits, improve quality, expand market share, solve problems, and/or use resources more effectively?
Value Engineering
What are the characterists involved in Value Engineering?
Gather information, measure, analyze, generate, evaluate, develop & expand ideas, and present ideas
What are the four types of Root Cause Analysis?
Fishbone, Five whys, Interrelationship Diagram, Process Model
A fishbone diagram is also known as what?
Cause and Effect Diagram, Ishikawa
An Ishikawa Diagram is also known as what?
Fishbone, Cause and Effect Diagram
Is the head of the Fishbone diagram on the left or the right of the diagram?
What is the Five Whys technique?
Where the analyst asks "why" about five times, or until no new information is presented.
What is the goal of the Five Whys technique?
To get the root cause of a problem
True or False: the Five Whys technique cannot be combined with other root cause analysis techniques
FALSE. This is a great tool to use in combination with other techniques.
What would be an alternate way to ask "Why" when using the Five Whys technique?
Tell me more about why that happens?
What is an Interrelationship Diagram?
A tool that helps to explore contributing factors (causes) and effects of each factor
How are factors represented in the diagram?
What do the arrows notate in an Interrelationship Diagram?
Where one factor is a cause to another
What do the numbers on an Interrelationship Diagram depict?
the number of causes that are inputs, and the number of effects
What is a Process Model?
Identifies the high-level steps in a process and tehories of problem causes within each setp along the business process
What are process models good for?
When process intervention may be helpfurl, or where steps may be overlooked as sources of problems
What is the mnemonic for the Scope Modeling tools and techniques?
CEFGU (Crystals Evoke Funky Ghost Unicorns)
What are the Scope Modeling techniques used in Needs Assessment?
Context Diagram, Ecosystem Map, Feature Model, Goal Model and Business Objective Model, Use Case Diagram
What is a Context Diagram?
A visual representation of solution scope, focused on external agents interacting with the solution, along with details of the process and data used in the interactions
True of False: A Context Diagram is a detail view
FALSE. It only provides a high-level view.
What are the characterstics of a Context Diagram?
System, External Agents, Data Flows
What is an ecosystem map?
A diagram showing relevant systems, relationships between them, and data passed bbetween the systems.
What defines a "Relevant System" in an Ecosystem Map?
A system that interacts with the solution and is in scope for the current project
What is a "Feature Model"?
A view of the features of a solution in a tree or hiearachical structure
What is a "Goal Model and Business Objective Model"?
Diagrams for organizing and depicting the relationships between business problems or opportunities, business objectives, usccess metrisc, and high-level features as a chain.
What is a "Use Case Diagram"?
A diagram showing the actors and their goals within a system to accomplish a business goal or respond to events.
What is a good use of a Use Case Diagram in Needs Assessment?
Scope Modeling
True or False: special training is required to decipher Use Case Diagrams
FALSE. They are generally easy to understand
What depicts a system boundary in a Use Case Diagram?
A square
What are the characteristics of a Use Case Diagram?
System (boundary box), Actors, Use Case (oval), Interfaces (solid line)
What are the five types of Stakeholder Analysis tools and techniques used in Needs Assessment?
Job Analysis, Organizationl Chart, Personas, Role Definition (RACI), Skills Assessment
What is the mnemonic for the Stakeholder Analysis techniques?
JOPRS (Jane Organizes Personal Rings Slowly)
What is "Job Analysis"?
Reviewing job information for potential stakeholders to understand how their roles & responsbilities fit within the or in order to develop stakeholder management plans
What are "Organizational Charts"?
Charts that depict the structure of an organization, its functions, and its people.
What is the purpose of using Organizational Charts in Needs Assessment?
To identify all stakeholders who may have rqeuirements for the product or service being delivered.
What is a "Persona"?
A tool used to understand the different groups of a potential soultion by assigning each role a persona
How are personas used?
The tell a story about the users of that class, including information such as goals, behaviors, motivations, environment, demographics, and skills
What is "Role Definition"?
A means to analyze stakeholders to determine and define their roles with the org and the project
What is the most common way to depict Role Definition?
What is "Skills Assessment"?
Analyzing the skills and competencies of project stakeholders to allow for stakeholder management plans that leverage stengths and can accommodate weaknesses
What is the mnemonic for the Valuation techniques?
CFFKNPSV (Cool Friends Find Kind Neanderthals Playing on Silly Vines)
What are the techniques used for Valuation?
Cost-Benefit Analysis, Feasibility Analysis, Force Field Analysis, Kano Model, Net Promoter Score, Purpose Alignment Model, SWOT Analysis, Value Stream Map
What is "Cost-Benefit Analysis"?
Financial Analysis of the cost of a solution compared to the benefits the solution will bring to an organizaztion
What is the Pay Back Period in Cost-Benefit Analysis?
The length of time for an investment to pay for itself, usually expressed in months or years
What is Net Present Value?
Future value a project might bring, less its calcualted value today
What is Internal Rate of Return?
Hypothetical annual yield of an investment
What is Discounted Cash Flow?
Future value on cash flows, discounted to a present value
What is Feasibility Analysis?
An initial study to determine whether a project/solution provides the expected benefit to accomplish a business need
What is a Feasibility Study?
An initial study to determine whether a solution is viable to acocmplish a desired outcome, whether it's to solve a problem or sieze an opportunity
What is the intent of a Feasibility Study?
To understand the business drivers behind an initiative
When would Feasibility Studies most often be used?
For major business initiatives
What is "Force Field Analysis"?
The process of analyzing the forces for and against an initiative
Why would Force Field Analysis be useful?
To help form a decision and communicate the reasoning behind the decision, and also to identify opportunities to change forces one way or the other in order to change the outcome
What is a "Kano Model"?
Describes what it takes to positively impact customer satisfaction.
What do Kano Models explore?
What customers expect, what is normal, and what they find exciting
What is "Net Promoter Score"?
A Tool for measuring customer loyalty
What are the three categories of customers in NPS?
Detractors, Passives, and Promoters
What is the "Purpose Alignment Model"?
An analysis tool used for aligning business decisions, processes, an dfeature designs around a purpose
What is the design of a Purpose Alignment Model?
Four quadrants showing: Parnter, Differentiating, Who Cares? and Parity
What is SWOT Analysis?
A strategic planning tool used to explore the current state of an organization using four key strategic variables
What does SWOT stand for?
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats
Which two aspects of SWOT are internal?
Strenghts & Weaknesses
Which two aspects of SWOT are external?
Opportunities & Threats
What is a "Value Stream Map"?
A lean management method for analzygin current state and designing a future state for the series of events that take a product or service from beginning through to the customer
What is the goal of Value Stream Mapping?
To reduce the wasted time in a process in which no value is being delivered