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329 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What types of tools and techniques are used to analyze the business and requirements for further understanding of the situation and solution requirements?
Analysis Tools & Techniques
What is "Decomposition"?
Breaking down something higher-lever into subsets to study or analyze
Decomposition is often presented using what types of models?
Graphical model, such as a decomposition diagram
What types of things may be decomposed?
Solution scope, organizational units, processes, and functions
___ is a common technique in business analysis in project management, used to break things into smaller components
Decomposition should continue until ___ detail is achieved
What is a WBS?
Work Breakdown Structure
What is a Work Breakdown Structure?
A project planning technique that hierarchically breaks down deliverables and/or tasks of a project into manageable pieces
A WBS is an example output of what type of technique?
What is "Dependency Analysis"?
A technique used to identify and clearly articulate dependences between two or more requirements
What are some types of relationships that might be analyzed in dependency analysis?
Subsets, Implementation, Benefit or Value
What does it mean when a requirements has a subset relationship?
This is may be a subset of another requirements
What doe sit mean when a requirement has an implementation dependency relationship?
That some requirements cannot be implemented until another requirement is implemented
What does it mean when a requirement has a benefit or value dependency relationship?
Some requirements may not be realized until other requirements are implemented first
What is "Gap Analysis"
Comparing the current and future states of an organization to identify changes needed to meet business needs
The ___ state can help a BA understand how far apart that state is from the desired state or objectives
Specific new capabilities to meet the business need are identified using what?
The Current State
What needs to be developed to depict the desired future state?
Gaps are differences between __ and __ state
Current and Future
What compares the states to identify differences between them?
Gap Analysis
What is "Impact Analysis"?
Analysis of the impact of a change
What permits a quick review of potentially affected changes to understand the impact of a change?
Tracing back to related requirements and development components
What is "Progressive Elaboration"?
An approach to planning that accounts for the iterative nature of planning; it allows for more detailed planning to be done as more becomes known
True or False: REquirements tend to be very low-level early in the life of a project
FALSE. They are typically high-level early on in a project
What is the term for adding details and specificity to requirements as more becomes known?
Progressive Elaboration
What is a "Risk"?
An uncertain events or conditions that will have an impact, positive or negative, on one or more project objectives
When is the technique "Risk Analysis" typically done?
How is Risk Analysis performed?
Identify and analyze risks related to a program, project, or process to understand the impacts and develop appropriate responses
True or False: Risks can only be negative
FALSE. Risks can be either positive or negative
What are the possible responses to a negative risk?
Accept, Transfer, Avoid, Mitigate
What are the possible responses to a positive risk?
Accept, Share, Exploit, Enhance
What are "Business Rules"?
Operating principles or self-imposed constraints that apply across all projects and systems
What constrains, defines, or enables the organization to function?
Business Rules
Business rules must be what?
Specific, actionable, and testable
True or False: Business rules are not usually atomic
FALSE. They are atomic, meaning they can't be broken down further
__ __ are important internal regulations that affect one or more processes, and requirement must support or contradict them
Business Rules
True or False: In practice, business rules are often mixed in with requirements
TRUE. They are often uncovered by the process of eliciting and analyzing requirements
True or False: Business Rules are a special type of Requirement
FALSE. Business rules are independent concepts that apply across all projects
Just like requirements, Business Rules must be __ __ and documented independent of their enforcement
Uniquely Identified
Why should business rules be maintained?
To allow change and adaptation as the business changes
What are the specific tools and techniques used in Business Rules Analysis?
Business Rule Catalog, Decision Table, Decision Tree
What is a Business Rule Catalog?
A Document containing a complete list of business rules
What are some attributes that might be captured in a Business Rule Catalog?
Description, examples, related rules, references, notes, and assumptions
What is a "Decision Table"
A tool used to document business rules in a tabular format
What is a decision table used to document?
All factors that may impact the processing of a decision
What is a Decision Tree?
A tool to document complex business rules graphically in a hierarchical structure
True or FAlse: Decision Trees and Decision Tools may not be used in conjunction
FALSE. They may be used together to analyze and document complex business requirements
What type of tools and techniques are used to discover, understand, and articulate data requirements for a solution?
DAta Analysis
What are the techniques used in data analysis?
DAta Dictionary and Glossary, DAta flow diagram, data models, state diagrams and tables
What is a "Data Dictionary"?
A basic type of requirements documentation, showing high-level data needed for a business
What are data dictionaries used for?
To foster communication between the business and project team
Data dictionaries are typically refined into more detailed data ___ when used for supplemental data documentation
What are the key items to include in a data dictionary?
Terminology and corresponding definitions used by the organization
What is the goal of using a data dictionary?
To get stakeholders in consensus about the data needed and the terminology used for an organization
What is a "Glossary"?
Contains terms and unique, formal definitions for them, plus any synonyms or aliases.
What brings stakeholders into consensus about the terminology for a project and beyond?
What is different between a data dictionary and glossary?
Includes formal definitions of individual data items and groups, includes meanings and ranges of permissible values
What is a "DAta Flow Diagram"?
Models that show data in context of the process, and what is stored by the system
Why were data models created?
To show what the business does with its processes and data
What is a DFD?
Data Flow Diagram
what does a data flow diagram depict?
The processes, systems, and data and how it flows through a solution
Data diagrams can be used after what types of diagrams have been created?
Business data diagrams, process flows, and ecosystem maps
Data flow diagrams show the __ bewteen systems, actors, and data that is exchanged
An "External Agent" in a Data Flow Diagram is also known as what?
External Agent or Actor
What is an "External Agent" in a data flow diagram?
People or other systems that interact with the system
What is the symbol on a DFD that represents an External Agent?
What does a circle or rounded rectangle represent in a DFD?
Dat Process
How are data flows depicted in a DFD?
Lines with arrows indicating direction of flow
An open rectangle with a label represents what in a DFD?
Data Store
What is a "Data Model"?
A diagram used to show the relationship between data and how data is related to processes. Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERDs) are a primary type of data model
What is an ERD?
Entity Relationship Diagram
What do data models document?
DAta used in a process or system and its life cycle
True or False: data models to have have a standard diagramming technique
FALSE. Data models do used standards to illustrate the relationships between data and processes
Data models can be used to extract what?
Requirements and Business Rules
Data models can complement what other types of models?
Logical and Physical Data models
True or False: Data models are easy to understand and can be used with untrained stakeholders
FALSE. Stakeholders must be familiar with or taught how to use data models
How can data models be used with customers?
To validate data requirements
What is an "Entity"?
The term for business data objects or pieces of information or interests. They are not references to exact objects in a database; rather, they represent the people, places, things, and concepts that are of concern to the business
References to people, places, things, and concepts are part of what?
An Entity
An ERD is a __ type of data model
Another term used for an entity in a different type of model is what?
A Class (in a class diagram)
What are entity attributes?
Individual facts of interest about an entity
What attributes are typically captured about an entity?
Name, Value/Meanings, Description
What is a "Relationship" in a data model?
Significant business connections between entities
Two business rules between entity that appear on diagrams with "cardinality" symbols
What is "metadata"?
Data about data
What is "Cardinality"?
The degree of a relationship between entities, expressed usually as one or many on an ERD or class diagram
Multiplicity is another term for what?
What are the four different types of relationships that might be on an ERD?
1) zero-to-one 2) one and only one, 3) zero-to-many 4) one or more
Class and Operations are additional elements of what type of data model?
Class Model
What are the four different relationships that might be on a class diagram?
1) 1.1 (one and only one), 2) 0..* (zerto many), 3) 1..* (at least one, possible more), 4) 0..1 (zero or one)
0..* is an example of what in a Class Model?
A relationship (of zero to many)
What is a "State"?
A discrete condition or status that an entity/class can occupy. An object of a class has one and only one current state. Business rules dictate the state.
What dictates the state in a state diagram?
Business Rules
True or False: A state diagram can have one and only one current state
TRUE. A class/entity can only be in one state at a time.
What is a transition in a state diagram?
An event or other trigger that causes an entity to move from one state to another. Business rules dictate which transitions are valid for which states.
Business rules dictate which __ are valid for which states
What do state diagrams depict?
The various states which an entity or class flows through during its lifetime (from creation to deletion)
State diagrams also show the __ or __ that prompt the flow from one state to another
Events or Triggers
State diagrams are typically used for what type of entities?
Complex, with multiple states or "life cycles"
What can state diagrams help uncover?
Missing data attributes and processes involved in the various transitions
Who defines the states an object may be in?
The business
States are the source of what?
Requirements and rules for entering and leaving the various states
Two other terms for an event in a state diagram are?
Trigger or Pre-condition
What is an "activity" in a state diagram?
An activity that occurs when the entity is in a state (a verb)
In a state diagram what is the term for the start of the model?
Initial state
What is the term for the termination of a state diagram?
Final state
What are decision making tools used for?
To facilitate a group in order to understand options and agree upon a selected course of action
What is the mnemonic for the decision-making tools and techniques?
What are the decision making tools & techniques in Analysis?
Consensus Building, Multi-voting, Delphi Techniques, Options Analysis, Weighted Criteria, Nominal Group Technique
What is the techniques "Consensus Building"?
This is really a general term for getting a group to generally agree
What is another term for "Consensus Building"?
Collaborative Problem-solving or Collaboration
Collaboration is another term for what decision-making technique?
Consensus Building
What is the "Delphi Technique"?
A method of gaining consensus using expert opinion
Facilitating gathering expert opinions with anonymous responses until consensus is achieved is called what?
Delphi Technique
The Delphi technique is commonly used to create __ or get a __ on a decision to be made
Estimates or Recommendations
What is "Multi-voting"?
Giving participants multiple votes for applying to a variety of options
Who is responsible for assigning the number of votes allowed per person in the Multi-voting technique?
True or False: In multi-voting, only one vote per person per item is allowed
Track question. It could be done this way, or multiple votes on one item might be allowed to add weight to preferred selections
What is Nominal Group Technique?
A process that includes brainstorming to generate ideas
Nominal Group Technique is often used with which other techniques
Votes or multi-voting
What is "Options Analysis"?
Analyzing various options to understand the benefits, risks, and consequences of each
Why is "Options Analysis" used?
In order to make a selection that bring the greatest value to the project
What is the technique "Weighted Criteria"?
A tool used to score various options against pre-selected criteria
What is another term for the "Weighted Criteria" decision technique?
Multi-criteria Decision Analysis
How is "Weighted Criteria' used to help make decisions?
To determine the best option for moving forward, or in prioritization rank options against a quantifiable score
In the weighted criteria technique, the alternatives are judged on how well they support each __
Relative __ scores are used to calculate the best alternative in the weighted criteria technique
What characteristics are used in the weighted criteria decision technique?
Criteria, Weight, Options, Score
What is the purpose of Elicitation Tools & Techniques?
To elicit requirements, assumptions, and constraints
What is the mnemonic for the Elicitation Tools & Techniques?
NOPROMDISBFW (NO, PROm, Date, IS Bad For Wanda)
What are the Elicitation tools and techniques?
- Non-functional - Prototypes- Research- Observation- Document Analysis- Interviews- Survey- Brainstorming- Focus Group- Workshops
The brainstorming techniques encourages what kind of thinking?
What is "Divergent"?
Activities that produce a broad or diverse set of options
When does Brainstorming work best?
When focusing on one problem or issue
Brainstorming leverages the ___ powers of a group to generate many ideas quickly
What is "Convergent" thinking?
It narrows down the possibilities to select the best idea or option
What technique would be used for analyzing root causes, initial product concepts, or recommended solutions?
What is needed to guide a group through brainstorming
True or False: Brainstorming may be done free-form or structured
TRUE. It may be done either way.
What is document analysis?
A Technique that collects requirements from an existing "as-is" system by studying and summarizing available documentation
What are the two categories of document analysis?
Business or System documentation
True or False: Document analysis can compensate for a lack of a SME
TRUE, but only assuming the documentation is current
Document Analysis is also known as what?
Current Systems Analysis
Business plans, market studies, and contracts are examples of what type of documents?
Process flows, business rules, and reports are examples of what type of documents?
True or False: Document Analysis is limited to the "as-is"
TRUE. And only if it's for an existing system with current documentation
What is a "Facilitated Workshop"?
A technique used to scope, discover, define, review, prioritize, and reach closure on solution requirements
Well-run __ are one of the most effective ways to discover and define high-quality requirements quickly
What is needed for an effective workshop?
A skilled and neutral facilitator
The facilitator is responsible for what in a facilitated workshop?
Keeping the group focused on objectives and enforcing ground rules
What is an important preparation artifact for holding a workshop?
An agenda
What other role besides the facilitator is important to the success of a workshop?
A requirements workfshop would be a good technique to use when what conditions exist?
There are cross-functional requirements or differences need to be reconciles among diverse stakeholders
It's the faciliator's responsibility to make sure that all stakeholders do what?
What is another term for a Facilitated Workshop?
JAD (Joint Application Development) session
What are some other names or types of facilitated workshops in different industries?
QFD (Quality Function Deployment), VOC (Voice of the Customer)
What do good scribes do?
Document requirements or pertinent information in the agreed-upon format, and help keep track of issues or deferred items
What is a "Focus Group"?
A facilitated workshop setting where participants are selected to provide their thoughts and attitudes about the potential solution
Focus groups use __-___ individuals to elicite ideas and attitudes about a specific product, service, or opportunity
What does a Focus Group require?
A trained moderator who prepares a handful of questions that are thrown out to the group to guage their response
What is the purpose of conducting a Focus Group?
To get insight into the diversity of ideas or expectations of the group
What is an "Interview"?
A systematic questioning of stakeholders to learn about their problems, the root causes, and the stakeholders' requirements
True or False: Interviews are always formal in nature
FALSE. Interviews may be formal or informal
What is a strutured interview?
An interview with pre-defined and specific questions
What is an unstructured interview?
An interview with ad-hoc, open-ended questions
What do successful interviews depend upon?
The understanding of the domain, experience of interviewer, skill in documenting discussion, readiness of interviewee, degree of understanding, rapport
What do interviews allow for?
Full discussions and follow-up questions, as well as privacy for discussing sensitive issues
What are Non-functional requirements?
They document environmental conditions or qualities under which the solution must remain effeictve
What type of requirements supplement the behavior or functionality of the solution?
Non-functional requirements
What is a term commonly used when referring to non-functional requirements?
SLAs (Service Level Agreements)
Reliability, Mantainability, Capacity, and Security, are examples of what type of requirements?
What is the techniqeu "Observation"?
A common elicitation technique that is used to watch people in their natural work environment
What is another term for "Observation"?
Job Shadowing
What is the Observation techinque useful for?
Filling in gaps in processes and relatied requirements
Observation is useful to use when what conditions are present?
When it's difficult for something to explain how they do something or they are reticent to articulate their requirements
What are the types of observation?
Passive, Active, Participatory Observation, Simulation
What is "Passive" observation?
Observing without interrupting the person doing the work
What is "Active" observation?
When the observer may interrupt th person to ask questions or get clarifications
What is "Simulation"?
Observation of simulated work that is created using a tool that recreates the activities, operations, or processes of a process worker
What is "Participatory Observation"?
When the observer actually performs th work to experience aprocess an duncover potneital hidden requirements
What is a "Survey/Questionnaire"?
A tool for collecting large amounts of both qualitative or quantitative data in a short amount of time
Who determines what data needs collecting, and formualtes the questions, and then collects and analyzes the rersponses on a survey?
Project Team
What is a key part of conducting a survey?
Determinging the sample pouplated to be surveyd, and finding a representative group of respondents to measure
When are surveys best used?
When a large number of responses to a limited set of questions are needed quickly
What are Close-ended questions?
Those that have a limited choice of answers
What are open-ended questions?
Those that may be answered any way the respondednt wishes
What type of survey questions usually requires additional follow-up?
True or False: Open-ended questions can provide more substance than close-ended questions
TRUE. But, they are more difficult and time-consuming to analyze
What are Interface Analysis tools & techinques used for?
Defining boundaries of a system by defining the other systems that provide functionality, inputs, and outputs
Functionality, inputs, and outputs are a part of what type of tools and techniques?
Interface Analysis
What is a practical outcome of performing interface analysis?
Interactions between systems are better defined and smoother interactions result
What are the Interface Tools & Techinques?
Interoperability, Prototypes, Report Table, Storyboarding, System Interface Table, User Interface Flow, Wireframes & Display-Action Response
What is Interoperability analsis?
Analysis to understand how applications communicate and collaborate with each other to exchange data, or complete a worfklow or process
What is a "Prototype"?
A mock-up of a screen or report layout for a proposed system in order to elicit requirements for it. Can be paper/pencil or electronic
Prototyping is a technique that is considered both __ and __.
Elicitation and Interface Analysis
When prototyping is used for elicitation, what does it facilitate?
Discovery of interfaces and related requirements, such as data and navigation
Why are prototypes valuable?
They produce quick and early feedback for defining requirements
What is a "horiztonal prototype"?
One tha tis shallw and doesn't contain much detail, but is intended to cover a wide view of a solution's functionality
What is "vertical prototype"?
A deeper prototype into a narrower range of interaces, that can be used to elicit detailed interafce or data requirements
What are the characteristics of a prototype?
Low-fidelity, high-fidelity
True or False: a pen or computer-aided sketch of a UI undergoing analysis is a high-fidelity prototype
FALSE. This is an example of a low-fidetliy prototype
What is an example of a "High-fidelity" prototype?
A representation of a final product, usually completed with teh same developmen tool that will be used to develop the solution
How are high-fidelity protetypes limited?
Data and Functionality
What ar eth two types of prototypes?
Throw-away (paper and pencil) and Evoluationary (functional electronic)
What are two synonyms for a prototype?
Storyboard, Wireframe
What is a "Report Table"?
A tabular listing of requirements relating to the development of a single report
Name, Trigger, Data fields, and display format are examples of what?
A Report Table
What are some elements that may be included on a Report Table?
Name, Description, Decision facilitated by, Objectives, Audience, Calcuations
What is a "Storyboard"?
A tool to focus on gaining understanding of requirements for a process base don a potential user interface
When would using a storyboard be appropriate?
Early on in the project lifecycle
What is a "System Interface Table"?
A model of attributes that cpatures all of the detailed-level requirements for single system interface
What format is a "System Interface Table" typically in?
Source system, Volume of data, Data passed are attributes of what technique?
System Interface Table
What are some attributes of a System Interface Table?
Security or other ruels, Source System, Target System
What is a "User Interface Flow"?
A graphical representation of pages or screens that map user navigation of the screen based on various triggers
A "Display-Action-REsponse" model is typically used in conjunction with what other technique?
What is the purpose of the "Display-Action-Response" model?
To show detailed dispalys and interactions in a single user interface element based on wireframes
ID, Description, Display conditions, Behaviors, are exmpales of attributes of what technique?
Wirefreames & Display-Action-Model
Display-Action-Response models are traced directly to what?
Wifreames, user stories, user interface flows, and data dictionaries
What are "Measurement" tools and techniques used for?
To measure solution performance after implementation
What are the "Measurement" tools and techniques?
- Metrics and KPIs- Organizational Readiness- Planguage- Service Level Agreement (SLA)
What is a "Metric"?
A standard of measurement, often associated with a goal or the performance or progress of something
What is a "KPI"?
Measures or pgoress torwards strategic goals and performance
Commonly used metrics for measuring business performance are called what?
KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)
What is the term for the concept of tracking a solution's performance over time?
In the "Metrics & KPIs" technique, benefitis of the __ __ are compared to relevant performance metrics to assess and manage actual results
Business Case
The "Metrics & KPI" techniques include possible __ to measure to ensure they align with desired resutls
Finance, customer, employee, sustainability are characterisics of what technique?
KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)
What is "Organizational Readiness"?
An assessment of how ready an organization is to accept a new solution
What is "Planguage"?
It is short for "Planning Language".
What is the term for a set of closely defined identifiers (tags) used to describe and quantify specific elements of requirements
Gist, Wish, Plan are sample tags of what technique?
What is a "Service Level Agreement"?
Commonly used in contract negotiations
SLAs may also be used in an organization to articulate a __ to the business on service level expectations in relationship to a product
Promise or Agreement
Another term for an agreement detailing the nature, quality and scope of service to be provided
Service Level Agreements (SLA)
Availability percent, performance thresholds, and maintenance window are examples of what?
Characteristics of a SLA
What are "Prioritization" tools and techniques used for?
To facilitate determining and documenting the priority (or desirability) of many options
What are the "Prioritization" techniques?
HML, MoSCoW, Multi-voting, Voting, and Weighted Criteria
What is the "High, Medium, Low" prioritization technique?
It's a subjective priotization technique in which the stakeholder(s) assign a High, Medium, or Low priority
What can be a mitigation factor in the High, Medium, Low prioritization technique?
Establishing clear criteria about what each constitutes
What is "MoSCoW"?
A Priotiziation technique used to rate requirements using specific ratings: Must-have, Should, Could, Won't
What is "Voting"?
Ideas are voted on by stakeholders to identfy the preferred ranking of ideas
What are Process Analysis tools & techniques used for?
To understand and document processes in order to elicit and capture process-related requirements
What are the Process Analysis tools & techniques?
- CRUD Matrix- Data Flow Diagrams- Dependency Graphs- Events- Process Models- Sequence Diagrams- Use Cases- User STories
What is a CRUD Matrix?
A matrix used to cross-check data and processes to ensure that aprocess is in place to create, read, update, and delete every entity
A matrix used to show what should be created, read, updated, or deleted is what?
CRUD Matrix
What are CRUD Matrices used for?
To help spot gaps
True or False: CRUD matrices are helpful in documenting user permissions in a system
TRUE. This is a good techniques for documenting user permissions
What is a Dependency Graph?
A visual deptiction of dependencies in system requirements, functions, or components
True or False: There is a single method or process for developing the graph
FALSE. There is NOT a single method
What are Events?
The process of analyzing business evnets in order to determine organizational responses needed to support the business
Events are also known as what?
Business Event Analysis
External, Internal, and Time-based are what?
What are the types of Events (in Business Event Analysis)?
External, Internal, and Time-based
What are "Process Models" used for?
Visually documenting work performed in an organization, inclduing who does it and how they collaborate
Process models can be used to do what?
- Discover Requirements- Document inputs and outputs- Document the business analysis approach- Uncover Stakeholders
What is a "Process"?
A series of business steps performed to accomplish a goal, done in response to a trigger that transforms inputs to outputs
What is a "Trigger" in a process?
The event that causes an input to transform into an output
Requests, actions, or time are what?
True or False: Process models an be used at different stages and levels
TRUE. They can be used at different levels (High, Medium, and Detailed)
What is a "high-evel" view of a process?
An "As-is" view of a current process
When you need to understand stakeholders and handoffs between them, what level would your process model be at?
What is a "Detailed-level" of a process?
A "To-be" view of future needs
What are teh characteristics of Process Models?
- Notation Elements- Terminal Points- Process Improvement
What are the Notation Elements of a Process Model?
Activities, Decisions, Events
What is an "Activity" in a process model?
Steps or tasks done to accomplish the goal of the process
Activities in a process model can be __, and may be broken down into lower-level sub-rocesses
What are "Decisions" in a process model?
Variations in the process flow that deviate and optionally come back together.
True or False: Variations in a wofklow can only have mutually exclusive flows
FALSE. That can also have parallel flows
What is another term for mutually exclusive or paralell flows in a process model?
What are "Events" in process models?
Actions, requests, or time passages outside of a process that can initiatie, interrupt, or terminate the process
What is a "Flow" event in a process model?
The direction or path of a process
Flow documents the __ and __ paths of a process, which can split and late rmerge together
Primary and Alternate
What is a "Role" event in a process model?
Type of person, group, or system that participates in a process
What is a "Swimlane" event in a process model?
Segregated bands on a diagram that shows which roles performs which parts of a process
What do flows that corss boundaries indicate on a swimlane?
The passage of work to another another role, usually involving a handoff
What is a "Terminal Point" on a process model?
The point of beginning or ending a process
Process models are often associated with what?
True or False: a Terminal Point on a process models only show the ending of a process
FALSE. They also show the beginning point.
What is "Process Improvement"?
A general name for a dscilipline that seeks to improve process efficiency and effectiveness
What is BPI?
An acronym for Business Process Improvement
Six Sigma and Lean are two examples of what?
Process Improvement
What are the main parts of an activity diagram?
Activity steps, control flows, forks and joins, decision points, guard conditions
What shape represents a process (activity step) in an activity diagram?
Rounded Rectangle
What is a "Control Flow" in an activity diagram?
An arrow that depicts the directional flow of the activities
A "Transition" is another term for what in a UML activity diagram?
Control Flow
What do Forks and Joins indicate on an activity diagram?
Where decisions are made (shown as an empty diamond)
What is a "Guard Condition" in an activity diagram?
A condition form a deciion that will return either a "true" or "false"
A decision can have many guard conditions, but will have only one guard condition that is what?
What are the main parts of a swimlane flowchart?
Terminal points, Activities & Flows, Swimlanes & Roles, Decisions
What is a "Sequence Diagram"?
UML diagrams that show th einteractions between objects in a system
What is an "Object" in a sequence diagram?
A specific instance of a class
Along with acitivity diagrams, __ diagrams are useful to visually model use cases and scenarios
What is anoter use of sequence diagrams?
To provide design-like details for how user interface or software elements should work
Who are the prime users of sequence diagrams?
Designers and Developers
Sequence diagrams depend on __ diagrams
What is a "Use Case"?
A technique to describe how actors interact with a system to accomplish a goal or respond to events
What is a "Use Case Model"?
A model that combines 1) a graphical system overview showing actors, use cases, and their interfaces, 2) written narratives that detail the interactions between actors and the system
What is a "Use Case Scenario"?
One instance of a use case, whether it is a primary or alternate path (or flow) through the use case
How can use cases be used?
To verify with business, and effectively communicate requirements to development team
What is the difference between a Use Case and Scenario?
Scenarios are jsut one aspect of a use case narrative, namely a primary or alternate path through the use case
A Use Case can be thought of as a group of related __
What is the primary path in a use case?
The main or simplest path through the use case for hte actor to achieve their goal
What is another label for a primary path in a use case?
What is an "Alternate" path on a use case?
A deviation from the Primary Path (whether variations, errors, or exceptions)
True or False: alternate paths must recommend with the primary path
FALSE. Alternate paths may reconnect with the primary path or have their own ending to the use case
What are the characteristics of a Use Case?
Name, Actors, Preconditions, Post-conditions, Flow of Events
What format is the name of a Use Case usually written in?
Verb-noun combination
What is an "Actor" in a use case?
The roles that people, groups, events, and time play in a system as they interact with use cases
What is a "pre-condition" in a use case?
A conditio, state, or event that must be true for a use case to begin
What is a "post-condition" in a use case?
A condition, state, or event thatwill be true when a use case ends
What is the "Flow of events" in a use case?
The steps detailing the interaction bewteen an actor and the system
What are the components of a use case?
Actors, Associations, Boundary Box, Use Case
True or False: Actors on a use case diagram must be associated with at least one use case
TRUE. They may also be connected to several
An association on a Use Case Diagram may also be called what?
An Interface
What represents the systems boundary in a use case?
Boundary Box
Use Case Diagrams can be used to depict what?
What relationships may be shown on a use case diagram?
Generalization, Extend, and Include
What is an Extend point in a use case?
An optional, pre-defined point in a use case for extensions or ehancements to take place
What is a "User Story"?
Brief statements that describe functional requirements at a high, arrative level that are generally used in adaptive projects
User stories focus on __ requiremnets
The hallmark of user stories is that they are what?
- Written by users to establish ownership of requirements- To facilitate communication- Encourage participation
Each user story should represent a different user and should be ___
True or False: When buidling a system to support a user story, additional requirements will need to be gathered
TRUE. They may be data, interface, or navigational requirements
What is the trade-off of user stories?
That they are a "light" set of requirements documentation
What is the format of a user story?
As a , I want , so that
What are the three components of a user story
Actor, Description, Benefit
True or False: a User Story is a complete requirement
FALSE. Acceptance Criteria must also be defined for each user story, in order for it to be considered complete