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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what does autorhythmic mean?
like the mammalian heart it will continue to beat if removed from the body
are heart muscle contrations dependent upon the brain?
what is the pacemaker of the heart and how does it communicate
SA node via gap junctions
true or false. the cardiac cycle invovles a sequential contratction of the atria and the ventricles
what is it called wihen arterial pressure is at its lowest point during the cardiac cycle
diastolic pressure
what is systolic pressure
blood entering the arterial system inflates the arteries a little and increases blood pressure to a max
when is the lub sound
early phase of vntricular congtraction by closing of the AV valves
when is the dub sound
semlinuar valves close
what is the equation for heart rate BPM
BPM = 60sec/sec/beat
what balances the intermittent ejection of blood into the arteries
constant loss of blood from the arteries to the capillaries
when is systolic pressure
at hgihtest level or ventricle contractions
when is diastolic pressure
at loweest level prior to pumpin gof blood into the arteries
when is the first sound in bp
when the systolic pressure is greater than the cuff
pulse pressure =
mean arterial pressure MAP =
diastlic + 1/3 pulse pressure
what determines the stiffness of the arterial wall
thickenss smooth muscle tone and age
what is the effect of cooling on periphjeral ciruclation
vasoconstriction increases bp
slowed circulation decreases bp

overall increased bp
define respiration
the process by which the body obtains and utilizes oxygen and produces and eliminates carbon dioxidde
the movement of gases between the lung ands the environment
pulmonary ventilation
what are the fire parts of respiration
gas exhcange
gas transport
gas exchange
cellular respiration
what factos influence diffusion
surface are
diffusion distance
conc gradient
;how is inspiration achieved
by contraction of the diaphramgma dn intercostal mucles which increase the volume of the thoracic cavity
where is the respiration center of the brain
the medulla
during times of increased demand, the ____ _____ can be increased to use some extra reserve in the lungs for air
tidal volume
what else can be changed after exercise to increase air exhange
increase rate
breathing rate =
60/mean duration
what are five things that the kidney regulates
Foreign chemicals
Hormones and enzymes
how much plasma is filtered per day
what shoudl urine include
water waste urea catabolism of protein muscle creatine end products of hemoglobin breakdown such as bilirubin
what shoudl NOT be in urine
glucose proteins aa blood
how can you tell renal disease
how can you tell edema
no sodium excreted
how can you tell profound renal malfunction
what is normal BGL
70 to 120
high specific gravity =
what is a motor unit
a notorneuron and all the muscle fibers that it innervates
why do muscles attach near the joints
so that a small contractgi nproduces a large movement