Auscultation Method Essay
2. Systolic pressure:
• Pressure in the arteries when the blood is being pumped out of the heart into the arteries
• The maximum blood pressure, when the ventricles are in contracting phase
• Pressure in the arteries when the blood is flowing away from the arteries into the other blood vessels
• The minimum blood pressure, when the heart is relaxed
• Difference between the systolic …show more content…
Also, the blood entering the raised arm has to flow into the arm against more pressure exerted due to gravity. The blood pressure in the arm will be reduced more than if the arm is at the heart level.
Arm is lowered
• Less gravitational force in the lowered arm since it is closer to the ground, hence less force from the blood needed to restrain against the lowered pressure in arm. Therefore the loss of blood pressure would be reduced, generating a greater blood pressure. Furthermore, the gravitational force of the blood towards the ground will also help to prevent the loss of pressure.
4. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure of the blood fluid on the blood vessel walls. When lying down, there is no significant difference between the hydrostatic pressure in the heart and legs because they are at the same level. When going from a lying to standing position, the hydrostatic pressure would increase below the heart, in particular the legs. The blood would pool in the legs and increase legs’ venous blood volume. On the other hand, there is lower hydrostatic pressure in the head than legs. Less blood would be distributed in the head because not much hydrostatic pressure is …show more content…
There would be pooling of blood in the legs and decrease of blood volume going to the head. Pooling of venous blood in the legs decrease venous return, hence decreasing the stroke volume according to the Frank-starling relationship, leading to cardiac output decreasing. Overall, the mean arterial pressure decreases, as shown in the results (decreasing from 67mmHg to 33mmHg).
The carotid and aortic baroreceptors sensed the fall in pressure in the reduced stretch in the aortic arch and carotid sinus. This immediately increased sympathetic nervous system innervation to SA node (increases heart rate), force of contraction of the ventricles and vasoconstriction, in order to restore the fall in blood pressure to the brain. Decrease in parasympathetic nervous system innervation, further reinforces the increase in heart rate. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system coordination led to immediate increase in heart rate, as shown in the immediate increase to 106bpm in the