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58 Cards in this Set

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WML de Wette
First major scholar to challenge the historicity of Acts
FC Baur
Idea of the Jewish party vs. Gentile party. That these scriptures were written with agenda. Associated with early Catholicism.
Albert Schwegler
(1) Acts is historically inaccurate because all eye witnesses are gone and (2) If it is not historically accurate, why was it written? Belief that it was written for the 2nd century church.
Eduard Zeller
Miracles are impossible
Martin Dibelius
(1) Speeches of Acts are a result of the author's literary imagination and were fictional because of how much they sounded alike (2) It was an itinerary document (diary) which provided the framework for Paul's ministry and wasn't really about Paul.
Ernst Haenchen
Commentary on Acts. Claimed that Acts was made-up.
Hans Conzelmann
Believed Acts was made-up.
Mathias Schneckenburger
Studied under FC Baur, but disagreed with him. He believed that Luke was an eye witness and he believed Acts was written prior to 70.
Albrecht Ritchl
Studied under Baur and originally agreed with him. Once he began to study the book of Acts, he disagreed with Baur's teaching
James Smith
Wrote "The Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul" and was an expert yachtsman. He believed that the account of Luke was written by eyewitnesses.
JB Lightfoot
(1) His work on the apostolic fathers (Ignatius, Clement, and Polycarp) showed that there was no evidence for division in the early church (2) Showed that Luke was accurate in his titles.
Sir William Ramsay
A classical scholar and archaeologist who was an expert in Asia Minor. Found that Luke was accurate in his descriptions of Asia Minor.
Adolf Harnack
Father of "Liberal Christianity"
FF Bruce
Wrote two commentaries on Acts and defended his accuracy on all points.
AN Sherwin-White
Believed that "Any attempt to reject the basic history of Acts must appear quite absurd."
Colin Hemer
"The Book of Acts in the Setting of Hellenistic History" He checked the historical accuracy of Acts compared with Greek history. Found that intricate details support accuracy.
Supposed problems with the accuracy of Luke?
Dates, Census, and Quirinius as governor.
Examination of the supposed problems with the accuracy of Luke:
(1) There were, in actuality, several censuses in the Roman Empire. Specifically, there were three censuses around the time of Jesus' birth. (2) Lineage was very important; therefore, it made sense for Mary and Joseph to travel back to Bethlehem. (3) The word "Governor" can actually be translated as "Leader" which makes more sense.
Examining the Census
(1) Herod's tax system wouldn't be possible without exact/many censuses (2)It makes sense that there was a census before Jesus' birth (3) The term "town scribe" appears in more than 200 papyri (in charge of census). (4) A lot of evidence for Egyptian Censuses
"First Census"?
Can be translated as "first of several", "earliest", "earlier", or "most important"
Revelation
Written by a Jew who was well-known by the churches of Asia Minor
Apocalyptic Genre
Type of revelatory literature that reveals. Written as a narrative from angel to human. Involves time. Transcendent reality - Reality is not just what we see.
Apocalyptic Characteristics
1. Revelatory communication (communicated by an angel)
2. Angelic Mediation (same as above)
3. Discourse Cycles
4. Ethical Discourse
5. Esoteric Symbolism (strange and unusual symbols)
6. Recital of History (Telling us something that has occurred in the past)
7. Pseudonymous (False name. Written by someone who didn't write it)
Most common themes in an apocalypse
1. Pessimism towards the current age
2. Promise of restoration
3. Transcendental Reality
4. Determinism
5. Modified dualism (good vs. evil)
Collins "The Apocalyptic Imagination"
Language of the apocalyptic genre isn't description like a newspaper, rather it tells a story like a poem.
Is the book of Revelation a prophetic work about the future?
(1) It is called a prophecy several times throughout (2) "At the beginning" and "at the end"
Methods to interpret the Book of Revelation:
1. Preterist Interpretation
2. The Historical View
3. Symbolic Method
4. Futuristic
Preterist Interpretation
Written to Christians being persecuted by Rome

1. Most popular opinion between scholars
2. Unhelpful to current believers
Evidence for Preterist View
1. In John, not everything is literal (Jesus body = temple)

2. Key words such as "imminent" and "near" occur throughout the book.
Problems with the Preterist View
1. With God, soon could be 1000 years. Writer is telling us to have patience

2. Main point of Revelation is that Jesus is coming back in judgment
Who is the Beast in the Preterist View?
The Roman Empire (Nero).

- Time was present audience
- Beast has authority and power
- Beast comes from the sea (necessary to cross the sea to get to Rome)
- Beast speaks blasphemy (Romans thought the rulers were gods)
- Letters of Nero's name adds up to 666
- Belief that Nero would come back to life
- Rome has seven hills
- Persecution of the beast will last 42 months
The Historical View
Sees Revelation as a prophecy of the history of the church. "History of the church up until then... up until then... up until then..."
Who is the Beast in the Historical View?
The Pope
The Symbolical Method
Book of Revelation is all symbols of the fight between good and evil. Idea that the fight will be continual. Written to all churches.
Problem with they symbolic method
Symbols in apocalyptic literature actually stand for real things
Who is the Beast in the symbolic method?
666 is incompletion in Judaism (whereas 7 stands for completion)

1. Symbol of false religion and philosophy
Futuristic View
1. Most important group that follows this point of view are the dispensationalists.

2. Things will get worse until Jesus comes back
Evidence for the Futuristic View
- It is a book of prophecy
- Revelation 1:7 describes the second coming of Jesus
- Future for ethnic Israel in the future. The 144,000 and the temple are taken literally
Who is the Beast in the Futuristic View?
Future antichrist
Progressive Dispensationalist View
There were real events that happened in the first century which Revelation is talking about. Those events are pointing forward to what will happen in the end. Physical and literal view
Evidence for the Progressive Dispensationalist View
1. "Write what you have seen, what is now, and what will take place."

2. The judgments are sequential not cyclical

3. Seven churches refer to the first century, yet will continue until the second coming.
Who is the Beast in the Progressive Dispensationalist View?
Nero AND future antichrist
Prophecy can be fulfilled one time:
- Preterist
- Historical
- Classical Dispensationalist
Prophecy can be fulfilled two times:
- Progressive Dispensationalist
Are all four views evangelical?
All claim to be although they vary greatly in their understanding of Revelation.
Theology of Revelation:
A. Problem of Evil
B. The Judgment of Evil
C. Coming of the Kingdom
- Judgment of Evil
- Coming of a new kingdom
Prodigal Son: What is this parable about?
Tax collectors and sinners were gathering to hear Jesus

Shame/honor culture: when son asked for his share, he was basically telling the father he wished he was dead.

After spending everything, he took a job feeding pigs (considered unclean by the Jewish community)
Why did the father run?
Considered shameful in the 1st century because the man would have had to tuck his robe and expose his legs.

He ran to his son so that he would take the shame upon himself. He was saving his son from public humiliation (Kezazah)
Point/Application of the prodigal son:
The father was different as was Jesus for sitting with "sinners". Repentance is necessary.

The father forgives us. He takes away our shame. He celebrates when we return to him. We should be a community that forgives and accepts, extending God's forgiveness to others.
Pauline studies:
1. Martin Luther
2. Krister Stendahl
3. E. P. Sanders
4. J.D.G. Dunn
Martin Luther
1. Justification by faith alone

2. Luther's Grid: Big contrast between the Jew and Gentile (Jew=law and works; Christian=faith and gospel)

3. Fighting against the Roman Catholic Church
Problem with Luther's understanding of Paul's background:
1st century was not as legalistic as Luther had thought. He was living in the context of the Catholics vs. Protestants.
Krister Stendahl
1. One of the first people to argue that Paul wasn't teaching on legalism.

2. Philippians 3:6 says he was blameless/faultless

3. Paul was really discussing the issue of "Jew vs. Gentile"

4. Paul was re-interpreted ("Introspective Conscience of the West")
E. P. Sanders
1. Put the idea of non-legalism on the map

2. Examined ALL Jewish documents

3. Judaism was not legalistic

4. Idea of Covenantal Nomism (gain relationship with God through covenant. Based on faith. Maintain relationship with law/works.
J.D.G. Dunn
Wrote "The New Perspective on Paul" and notes:

1. Christianity for Jew and Gentile

2. Justification by faith is referring to Jew and Gentile

3. Works of law are identity badges or boundary markers
Romans 3
No one will be declared righteous in his sight by being a Jew or by performing "works of law"
"New Perspective"
Name implies something that the church missed all these years.

Rather, it is important to look at it as what Paul ACTUALLY said

There IS an element of exclusivism and pride in Romans 3 as well as a little bit of legalism.
Application of the "New Perspective"
Christians often take the place of Jews when it comes to exclusivism and pride.

We need to remember that Jesus loved and accepted everyone.

He has destroyed the wall between Jews and Gentiles/Christian and non-Christian.

Cliques.