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107 Cards in this Set

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symbiosis
"to live together."

for exam, bacteria in your colon receive a warm, moist, nutrient-rich environment in which to thrive, while you absorb vitamin precursors and other nutrients released from the bacteria.


In ___________, both members benefit from their interaction.

mutualism

example: Staphylococcus epidermidis frowing on the skin typically causes no measurable harm to a person.


In _____________, a second type of symbiosis, one member of the relationship benefits without significantly affecting the other.

example: Staphylococcus epidermidis frowing on the skin typically causes no measurable harm to a person.


In commensalism, a second type of symbiosis, one member of the relationship benefits without significantly affecting the other.

Of concern to health care professionals is a third type of symbiosis called __________. A _________ derives benefit from its _______ while harming it, though some hosts sutain only slight damage; in most severe cases, a parasite kill its host, in the process destroying its own home.

Of concern to health care professionals is a third type of symbiosis called parasitism. A parasite derives benefit from its host while harming it, though some hosts sutain only slight damage; in most severe cases, a parasite kill its host, in the process destroying its own home.

Any parasite that causes disease is called a __________.

pathogen

Most of the ___________________ _________________ are commensal ; that is, they feed on excreted cellular wastes and dead cells without causing harm. _____________ _____________ remain a part of the normal microbiota of a person throughout life. these organisms are found on the skin and on the mucous membranes of the digestive tract, upper respiratory tract, distal portion of the urethra, and vagina.

Most of the resident microbiota are commensal ; that is, they feed on excreted cellular wastes and dead cells without causing harm. resident microbiota remain a part of the normal microbiota of a person throughout life. these organisms are found on the skin and on the mucous membranes of the digestive tract, upper respiratory tract, distal portion of the urethra, and vagina.




_____________ _______________ remain in the body for only a few hours, days, or months before disappearing. They are found in the same locations as the resident members of the normal microbiota but cannot persist because of competition from other microorganisms, elimination by the body's defense cells, or chemical and physical changes in the body that dislodge them.
transient microbiota remain in the body for only a few hours, days, or months before disappearing. They are found in the same locations as the resident members of the normal microbiota but cannot persist because of competition from other microorganisms, elimination by the body's defense cells, or chemical and physical changes in the body that dislodge them.

Describe three conditions that create opportunities for normal microbiota to cause disease.




Why doesn't cadida albicans (normal flora of vagina) always prolifically reproduce creating

- introduction of the normal microbiota into an unusual site in the body.




-immune suppression




-changes in the relative abundance of normal microbiota for whatever reason

____________ pathogens


-normal microbiota that cause disease under certain circumstances


opportunistic pathogens


-normal microbiota that cause disease under certain circumstances

microbial antagonism or microbial competition

reservoirs of infection

zoonoses


describe three types of reservoirs of infection in humans.

carriers

nonliving reservoirs

describe the relationship between contamination and infection.


contamination


infection

portals of entry

indentify and describe the portals through which pathogens invade the body.

parenteral route

list the types of adhesion factors and the roles they play in infection.

explain how a biofilm may facilitate contamination and infection.


adhesion




adhesion factors



avirulent


biofilm

compare and contrast the terms infection, disease, morbidity, pathogenicity.

disease




morbidity


symptoms




signs



syndrome

asymptomatic




subclinical


define etiology


list kochs postulates, explain their function, and describe their limitations.

germ theory of disease

explain how microbial extracellular enzymes, toxins, adhesion factors, and antiphagocytic factors affect virulence.

pathogenicity




virulence


virulence factors

toxins




toxemia



exotoxins




antitoxins




endotoxins




lipid A


lsit and describe the five typical stages of infectious disease.

disease process


-incubation period


-prodromal perod


-illness


-decline


-convalescence



portals of exit


incubation periods of selected infectious disease


-staphylococcus foodborne infection?


-influenza


-cholera


-genital herpes


-tetanus


-syphilis


-hepatitis B


-AIDS


-Leprosy


contrast contact, vehicle, and vector transmission of pathogens.

contrast droplet transmission and airborne transmission.





contrast mechanical and biological vectors.


direct contact transmission


indirect contact transmission




-fomites



droplet transmission


vehicle transmission






airborne transmission




-aerosol



waterborne transmission




-fecal-oral infection


foodborne transmission

bodily fluid transmission


vectors




-biological vectors



mechanical vectors


describe the basis for each of the various classification schemes of infectious diseases.


distinguish among acute, subacute, chronic, and latent diseases.


distinguish among communicable, contagious and non communicable infections diseases.

acute disease




chronic diseases




subacute diseases






latent disease



communicable disease




-contagious disease




-noncommunicable diseases


contrast incident and prevalence of disease

differentiate amont the terms endemic, sporadic, epidemic, and pandemic.


incidence




prevalence




endemic




sporadic




epidemic




pandemic


explain three approaches epidemiologists use to study diseases in populations.


descriptive epidemiology




-index case




analytical epidemiology




experimental epidemiology



explain how nosocomial infections differ from other infections.


escribe the factors that influence the development of nosocomial infections.


describe three types of nosocomial infections and how they may be prevented


nosocomial infections




-exogenous nosocomial infections




-endogenous nosocomial infections




-Iatrogenic infections






nosocomial diseases






list three ways public health agencies work to limit the spread of diseases.

potable




In which type of symbiosis do both members benefit from their interatction?


an axenic environment is one that ______________.



which of the following is false concerning microbial contaminants...




a. contaminants may become opportunistic pathogens.




b. most microbial contaminants witll eventually cause harm.




c. contaminants may be a part of the transient microbiota.




d. contaminants may be introduced by a psquito bite.



the most frequent portal of entry for pathogens is ___________________.

the process by which micoorganisms attach themselves to cells is __________________.

what is the correct sequence of events in infectious diseases?


which of the following are most likely to cause disease?




a. opportunistic pathogens in a weakened host.




b. pathogens lacking the enzyme kinase




c. pathogens lacking the enzyme collagenase




d. highly virulent organisms



the nature of bacterial capsules _________________.




a. causes widespread blood clotting




b. allows phagocytes to readily engult these bacteria.




c. affects the virulence of these bacteria




d. has no effect on the virulence of bacteria




when pathogenic bacterial cells lose the ability to make adhesis, they typically ________________.




a. become avirulent


b. produce endotoxin


c. absorb endotoxin


d. increase in virulence


a disease in which a pathogen remains inactive for a long period of time before becoming active is termed _____________.

which of the following epidemiologists is most like a detective?




a. a descriptive epidemiologist




b. an analytical epidemiologist




c. an experimental epidemiologist




d. a reservoir epidemiologist


an animal was infected with a viruse. a mosquito bit the animal, was contaminated with the virus, and proceeded to bite and infect a person. Which was the vector?




a. animal


b. virus


c. mosquito


d. person


a patient contracted athlete's foot after long term use of a medication. his physician explained that the malady was directly related to the medication. such infections are termed ________________.


a. nosocomial infections


b. exogenous infections


c. iatrogenic infections


d. endogenous infections


define contagious disease

a microbe that cuases disease is called a _________________.

infections that may go unnoticed because of the absence of symptoms are called ________________ infections.





the study of the cause of a disease is ____________.

the study of where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted within populations is _______________.


disease that are naturally spread from their ususal animal hosts to humans are called _____________.


nonliving reservoirs of disease, such as a toothbrush, dringing glass, and needle, are called ________________.

__________________ infections are those acquired by patient or staff while in heath care facilities.


the total number of cases of a disease in a given area is its __________________.


an animal that carries a pathogen and also serves as host for the pathogen is a _______________ vector.

Microbes live with their hosts ins ____________ relationships, including ___________, in which both members benefit, ___________, in which a parasite benefits while the host is harmed; and more rarely ______________, in which one member benfits while the other is relatively unaffected. any parasite that causes disease is called a ___________.

Microbes live with their hosts in symbiotic relationships, including mutualism, in which both members benefit, parasitism, in which a parasite benefits while the host is harmed; and more rarely commensalism, in which one member benfits while the other is relatively unaffected. any parasite that causes disease is called a pathogen.

living and nonliving continuous sources of infectious disease are called __________ of ________. Animal reservoirs harbor agents of _________, which are diseases of animals that may be spread to humans via direct contact with the animals or its waste products or bia an arthropod. Humans may be asymptomatic ________.


___________ ________ of infection include soil, water, and inanimate objects.



living and nonliving continuous sources of infectious disease are called reservoirs of infection. Animal reservoirs harbor agents of zoonoses, which are diseases of animals that may be spread to humans via direct contact with the animals or its waste products or bia an arthropod. Humans may be asymptomatic carriers.


nonliving reservoirs of infection include soil, water, and inanimate objects.

Portals of Entry of pathogens into the body include skin, mucous membranes, and the placenta. These portals may be bypassed via the ___________ ______, by which microbes are directly depsited into deeper tissues.

Portals of Entry of pathogens into the body include skin, mucous membranes, and the placenta. These portals may be bypassed via the parenteral route, by which microbes are directly depsited into deeper tissues.
___________, or ___________, infections may go unnoticed because of the absence of symptoms, even though clinical tests might reveal signs of disease
asymptomatic, or subclinical, infections may go unnoticed because of the absence of symptoms, even though clinical tests might reveal signs of disease
___________ is the presence in the blood of poisons called _______. ____________ are secreted by pathogens into their environment. ___________, also known as ______ ___, is released from the cell wall of dead and dying Gram-negative bacteria and can have fatal effects.

toxemia is the presence in the blood of poisons called toxins. exotoxins are secreted by pathogens into their environment. endotoxins, also known as lipid A, is released from the cell wall of dead and dying Gram-negative bacteria and can have fatal effects.

The __________ ________- stages of infectious diseases- typically consists of the _________ period, __________ period, illness,


decline, and ___________.


The disease process- stages of infectious diseases- typically consists of the prodromal period, incubation period, illness,


decline, and convalescense.

direct contact=


indirect contact transmission=


fomites=


droplet ransmission=


vehicle transmission=


aerosols=


vectors=


biological vectors=


mechanical vectors=


direct contact=person to person body contact




indirect contact transmission= when pathogens are transmitted via innimate objects




fomites= inanimate objects




droplet ransmission= pathogens travel less than 1 meter in droplets of mucus, i.e. speaking, coughing, sneezing




vehicle transmission= airborne, waterborne, and foodborne transmission




aerosols= are clouds of water droplets that, travel more than 1 meter in airborn transmission




vectors= transmit pathogens between hosts




biological vectors=animals, arthropods, that serve as both host and vector of pathogens


mechanical vectors=

epidemiologists trach the _________ (number of new cases) and __________ (total number of cases) of a disease and classify disease outbreaks as ___________ (usually present, ___________ (occasional), ___________ (morecases than usual), or __________ (epidemic on more than one continent)


epidemiologists trach the incidence (number of new cases) and prevalence (total number of cases) of a disease and classify disease outbreaks as endemic (usually present, sporadic (occasional), epidemic (morecases than usual), or pandemic (epidemic on more than one continent)

descriptive epidemiology=


index case=


analytical epidemiology=


experimental epidemiology=


descriptive epidemiology= careful recording of data concerning a disease, it often includes detection of the index case




index case= the first case of the disease in a given area or population.




analytical epidemiology= seeks to determine the probable cause of a disease




experimental epidemiology= involves testin a hypothesis resulting grom anylytical sudies

___________ infections and __________ diseases are acquired by patients or worker in health care facilities. They may be __________ (acquired from the health care environment, ____________ (derived from normal microbiota that become opportunistic while in the hospital setting), or ___________ (induced by treatment or medical procedures).

Nosocomial infections and nosocomial diseases are acquired by patients or worker in health care facilities. They may be exogenous (acquired from the health care environment, endogenous (derived from normal microbiota that become opportunistic while in the hospital setting), or iatrogenic (induced by treatment or medical procedures).