¥ Discuss the most common microorganisms that can cause urinary tract infections and understand the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections.
¥ Review the most common laboratory tests in diagnosing as well as the clinical signs and symptoms.
¥ Review treatment options, both non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic.
Overview: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are one of the most common illnesses seen in adult patients over the age of 65.  Therefore, managing and treating an elderly patient with diagnosed UTI is not without its challenges. Because of the elderly population’s unique characteristics, each patient requires a tailored approach to diagnosis and treatment.
Epidemiology/Etiology: Escherichia coli is the common pathogen …show more content…
A urinary analysis looks at the appearance of the urine to determine if there are any abnormalities. These abnormalities include cloudiness, presence of bacteriuria, white blood cells, hematuria, nitrates, leukocyte esterases, white blood cells, and protein.  Urinary cultures are used to identify the specific organism present in the infection. Results are generated in a preliminary report and then the final results are later confirmed.  These, along with susceptibility reports, are used to determine the appropriate antimicrobial therapy.
Non-Pharmacologic Interventions: 
• Encourage patients to drink plenty of water and daily
• Cranberry juice may help prevent recurrent infection
• Patients should empty the bladder as they feel the urge
• Patients must wipe from front to back after using the toilet
• Patients should void before and after intercourse
Pharmacologic Treatment for Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis :  …show more content…
The program was implemented in more than 10% of U.S. acute care hospitals, both catheter use and catheter-associated UTI rates were significantly decreased in the non-ICU setting.
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