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28 Cards in this Set

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Lecture 1:

Three main virus hypotheses?




1: Progressive or escape hypothesis

- viruses arose from genetic elements that gained the ability to move between cells

2: Regressive or reduction hypothesis

- remnants of cellular organisms been reduced

3: virus-First hypothesis

- viruses predate or coevolved with their cellular hosts.

Infection evidence found on dinosaurs? T/F


Osteomyelitis on stegosaurus tail

Dental records on many different dinosaurs

Who was Java man?

Homo erectus erectus

Femur showing osteomyelitis

Human genetic resistance.

3 examples:

Duffy antigen

- Duffy negative people are less susceptible to plasmodium vivax

Sickle Cell anaemia


- abnormal haemoglobin production

Where/When was the first written record of herbal remedies written?

3000 BC, Iraq. "Sumerians of Mesopotamia

What was the 1550 BC Eber's papyrus?

Medical text aimed at:


- Person treating external injuries

- Exorciser of Serqet

-Person treating snake/scorpion bites

-"Pure-priest of sekhment"

- Person treating aliments with no cures. I.e. Plagues.

Who first discussed "Germ Theory"?

Girolamo Fracastoro

Germ theories 3 routes of contagion?

Direct contact

Fomites (objects like clothes)


Very first evidence of vaccination?

Mithridates, 120 BC

Habituated himself to lethal doses of poison.

Lived into his 70s when average life expectancy was ~35-40

Who created the first effective smallpox vaccine?

Edward Jenner, 1796.

Germ theory of fermentation and early scientific method developer?

Lewis Pastur


- anthrax and rabies vaccine

- heat treatment for milk

Who was the first to culture bacteria on Agar Media?

Robert Koch

-also identified mycobacterium tuberculosis.

What are the four Koch postulates?

1: the microorganism must be found in abundance in all suffering from the disease

2: The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism grown in pure culture

3: the microorganism should cause disease if given to a healthy organism

4: The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased host and identified as the specific causative agent.

Three examples of 20th century antibiotics




What are some current challenges?

Global epidemics


Lethal outbreaks of hyper virulent viruses

- Tuberculosis, Zika

Antibiotic resistance


-antivaxers etc..

Lecture 2: Commensal Flora:

What is the major site of commensal flora?

Body surfaces.

Commensal Flora are acquired from the mother Before, During or After birth?

During birth and from the environment

Four benefits of commensal flora:

1: Prevent the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria

2: Produce most of our Vitamin K and B12

3: Aid in food absorption. (Breaking down of large molecules)

4: Degrade harmful compounds

Innate Immunity:

Three example of Antibacterial secretions

1: Skin lipids

2: Lysozymes in saliva/tears/intestine

3: Gastrointestional secretions

- Stomach Acid

- Bile Salts

List some of the Factors Influencing Commensal Flora. (7 total)

1: Temperature

2: Oxygen

3: Nutrient supply

4: Humidity

5: Body secretions

6: interaction with other organisms

7: Antimicrobials

List 3 factors that influence Commensal Flora

1: Antibitoics

2: Non-antibiotic drugs

- Proton pump inhibitors

3: Change in imune status

List some ways commensal flora can become a pathogen

1: Breach of normal innate defences

2: imunocomprimised host

3: Overhrowth due to disturbances in normal control methods

-Candida vaginalis following antibiotic therapy

- Alterd bowl movement flollowing gastroenteritis.

Commensal Flora are True Pathogens? (T/F)


What are True Pathogens?

Pathogens that always cause disease even in healthy patients.

Also, cause disease more readily in immunocompromised patients.

What are Opportunistic Pathogens

Pathogens that rarely cause disease in individuals with efficient immune system.

Many are apart of normal human flora

A successful pathogen must be able to? (5 things)

1: Enter the hosts body

2: Multiply in tissue

3: Damage the tissue

4: Resist host defences

5: Exit the host


Steps in the infectious process: (5 steps)

1: Transmission of the pathogen to the host

2: Enters the host (With or without attachment) to skin or mucus membranes

3: Local multiplication and spread on the surface or mucous with or without tissue invasion

4: Systemic spread and multiplication

5: Exit from host

List some ways a pathogen damages the host (4 ways)

1: Invasion and multiplication within tissues

2: Toxin production

3: Immunopathology

4: Combination of all.