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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

how was Russia ruled by tsar before February revolution

Russia was an autocracy

Duma failed to present people's views

the tsar used his secret police to get rid of people who opposed him

why was the tsar a weak leader

he avoided making important decisions

he tried to get involved in everything which wasn't good as Russia was so big and tasks had to be shared out

autocracy only worked if the tsar was strong but Nicholas wasn't a strong character

he showed little understanding of politics and how to run

when was Bloody Sunday


what caused Bloody Sunday

bad harvests in 1900-1902

Russia was at war with Japan which was disastrous and embarrassing- it produced food shortages and peasants and workers were forced to join the army

people were fed up of a poor life- low wages and bad working conditions

what happened at Bloody Sunday

200,000 protestors stood outside tsars winter palace and protested as they wanted the war with Japan to end and higher wages and better working conditions

the tsars soldiers fired on the crowd killing hundreds

what were the effects of Bloody Sunday

chaos spread throughout the country - there were strikes and riots and revolt in the navy

strikers formed Soviets - workers council to organise strikes

tsar issued the October manifesto to stop further chaos

what did the October manifesto promise

freedom of speech

a national Duma

end to censorship

the right to form other political parties

what were problems in Russia in 1917

it was huge so communications were difficult, roads were slow and railways were limited to a fraction of the country

farming methods were old fashioned and slow

population was rising so more food was needed which resulted in food shortages

what did Constitutionalists want

they were middle class

wanted a democratic style government

wanted tsars power limited by an elected parliament and constitution

what did revolutionaries want

wanted to overthrow tsar

wanted peasants to rule

biggest groups were social democrats (Bolsheviks) and social revolutionaries

what did social democrats want

a revolution by the workers

who were Bolsheviks led by and what did they want

led by Lenin

wanted a small party who would organise revolution led by workers in towns

who were Mensheviks led by and what did they want

led by Trotsky

wanted a mass party and were prepared for slow change

what were the effects of WW1 on Russia in 1917

in 1915 the tsar took personal command of the army and so became unpopular as Russia faced humiliating defeats

the tsar left the tsarina in charge of Russia and many didn't trust her and didn't like the influence Rasputin had- made tsar more unpopular

there were shortages of fuel and food because workers and farmers were sent to fight in the war so was hard to keep factory production up

when was there a revolution in Russia

February 1917

why did this happen

tsar left tsarina in charge so he was out of touch with the growth of anger in people

food shortages because Russia was at war

very cold winter meant food supplies were cut to towns and cities - prices got higher and food was rationed. made people angry and hungry

what happened in February revolution

strikes. people demanded food

tsar lost support and control - ordered soldiers to shoot and mobs but many refused and joined the others

soldiers and workers fought together to capture main weapons store. they fought the police

Duma took control and set up provisional government to take control

effects of February 1917 revolution

provisional government - new government could face opposition from revolutionaries who wanted power (Bolsheviks)

the Petrograd soviet issued order number 1 to the army in Petrograd- said army must obey PG

tsar abdication

why did February revolution succeed

army joined the people bringing weapons

before this people didn't have organised revolution

the suddenness of it and the way tsar made it worse by ordering troops to fire was important

the army then became an important part of Petrograd soviet and getting PG accepted

weaknesses of PG

No real power- needed support of army to stay in power

Saw itself as temporary so waited for new government to tackle big problems

sent more troops to fight but supplies and leadership still poor

was the PG's failure to stop the war the most important reason for its unpopularity ?

Back (Definition)

how did Bolshevik power grow before the October revolution in 1917

Lenin was in exile in Germany during the February revolution. a month after tsar abdicated and Lenin returned to Russia

Lenin wanted to get rid of PG with a second revolution of the working classes (factory workers)

lenins views were published in April theses 1917

Bolsheviks offered "break leave and land and all power to the soviets" and gained support because they offered change and promised to end war

during July there were riots and protests that that PG was acting like tsar

explain effects of kornilov revolt

kerensky had to give Bolsheviks weapons to save the Pg from a military takeover (these weapons were later used by red army against the pg in October revolution)

pg lost support of the army and Bolsheviks were now the real power in Russia

Lenin encouraged Trotsky to prepare to seize power