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28 Cards in this Set

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nonliving agents, genetic elements


complex virus- unusual looking

prone to mutations

dependent on host cell

obligate intercellular parasites

need host cell

take over host cell function


complete virus particle, multiply and reproduce


bac cell virus

RNA or DNA, not both, double/single stranded

nucleocapsid- nucleic acid surrounded by capsid (protein coat), basic unit of virus

multiply inside host cell and use resources

host range

very specific about host cell attachment side

facilitate attachment leads to infection

viral structure

capsid (shell of protein) can be helical- twisted or polyhedral- many sides

capsomeres- subunits

spikes- attachment, change, define what virus

envelope (bilayer) lipid- like host cell membrane but with viral protein


enveloped- additional coat from host cell

nonenveloped- just capsid (naked), resistant to disinfectant

function of capsid/envelope

protection from host enzymes/ chemicals (from host, either carry all or none)

stimulate immune response- protect against infections

binding/attachment and penetration host cell- cell needs surface receptors for attachment and growth

bacteria life cycle

(multiplication of bacteriophages)

1. pierces hole- bac lysozome (cell wall dissolved)

2. push gen info inside cell, rest stays on outside

can shut down bac cell, dictated by virus gen material

produce enzyme, bac DNA destroyed

3. synthesis-replicate (more gen info), multiply (make more virus), eclipse- no virus particles detected in host cell

bacteria life cycle

4. assembly

5. release- infect other cells

lytic cycle ends in lyse of cell

look at pic lytic vs lysogenic cycle

lysogenic- virus and bac coexist

prophage- changes bac genetic structure (lysogenic conversion)

produce respiratory tract toxin (kills cells-pathogens)

form pseudomembrane

generalized transduction

mistakenly injecte bac DNA instead of viral

gene transfer, act like carriers and infect bac DNA

random DNA

error in packaging, suppose to pick up own DNA but pick up bac host DNA

any gene can be transferred by virulent/temp phage

specialized transduction

only temp phages can transfer specific bac genes

viral DNA pops out, pull out piece of bac DNA (specific DNA)


lytic cycle- ends in death of cell

temp phage- not perm, become part of bac DNA

latent- silent

lysogen- bac cell, infected by temp phage, DNA piece can pop out

prophage- extra DNA piece, integrated bac virus

animal virus

DNA (nuc)- need enzyme to multiply/replicate

RNA (cyto)- prone to mutations, replicate

mutations not fixed, passed on, stick/change

+ stranded- directly go to RNA

- stranded- make +, translated


poxvirus- large DNA virus, carries all enzymes for multiplication/replication (happens in cyto not nuc)

hepadnavirus- transcribes RNA strand and uses reverse transcriptase to make DNA mol (in body long time)

retrovirus- RNA used rev trans to make DNA integrated as provirus in host chromosome


integrated animal virus


animal cell entry

1. attachment, virion attaches to host cell

2. entry/uncoating- virion enters, DNA uncoated

3. portion viral DNA transcribed, prod mRNA

4. biosyn- viral DNA replicated, proteins made

5. late translation, capsid protein synthesized

6. maturation- virions mature

7. release- virions rel (exocytosis/budding)

cell will eventually die


separation of capsid and DNA released

uncoating- separation of capsid and genetic material

endocytosis/fusion- envelope only

very difficult to treat- once integrated immune system can not reach



humans, may not have symptoms but can transmit disease

acute infections

short duration, virus goes through productive cycle ended in the lysis of cell, late complications follow, sickness then recovery, immune system gets rid of all of virus, best to get


latent infections

quiet/dormant, delay between infection and symptoms, entry by mouth, 3-9 day recovery, heal, virus not slim-just dormant in nerve cells, can reactivate

cold sore, fever blister, herpes

varicella- caused by herpes, chicken pox/shingles

chronic infection

infectious virus present at all times, carrier may have no obvious symptoms but can pass it on- Hep B

gradual increase in virus over long period of time- AIDS, mad cow disease

virus is always present (not dormant)


abnormal growth

benign- remains in defined area, noninvasive

malignant- uncontrolled growth, metastasis

normal cells

grow in monolayer (single layer)

contact inhibition- multiply/divide, stop dividing when in contact with each other

apoptosis- program cell death- does not divide forever, body gets rid of

cancer cells

pile on top of each other


grows indefinitely

virus can transform cells from normal to cancer- transformation

normal cell become cancerous

oncogenic DNA and RNA viruses- cancer causing

Hep B/C (DNA)- carsination of liver

Epstein Barr (DNA)- mono virus, nasal vary cancer

HPV (RNA)- sex transmitted,

AIDS (RNA)- cancer of blood vessel lining

plant viruses

prions- no nucleic acid, entirely protein, hard to get rid of, tougher than virus/endospore

viroids- small circular single stranded RNA molecules, infect plants

tulip breaking virus- streaky, genetic color change