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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Behavioral Genetics?
The understanding of how genetics and environment contributes to behavior
What is the basic unit of inheritance?
What is the Diathesis-Stress-Model
Study of the origin of depression. It states that depression is caused by a "genetic vulnerability" and an traumatic environmental stimuli. It is also known that not all people develop depression following a traumatic childhood even if they have siblings that become depressed.
What is correlational studies?
Studying how different variables interact with other variables without manipulating the independent variable. No cause-and-effect can be determined
Three common ways of studying the biological level of analysis
Twin Studies, Adoption Studies, and Family Studies
What is concordance rate?
Is the correlation found between the particular characteristic being investigated in multiple individuals.
What is observed in twin studies?
The concordance rate of monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins.
What is expected in family studies?
Concordance rate of individuals will drop as the difference in generation increases. This is due to genetic variation.
What is observed in adoption studies?
The concordance rate of adopted individuals and biological individuals. If genetic does play a role, then adopted individuals should mimic the behavior of it's biological father more than it's adoptive father.
What is the weakness of adoption studies?
Adoption studies sometimes cannot be generalized. This is because of selective placement. This is where adoption houses try to find families that are similar in many ways possible to the natural parents.
Explain Bouchard and McGue's Experiment.
1981. They reviewed multiple studies of IQ correlations between siblings from researchers around the world.They found that the closer the kinship, the higher the correlation for the IQ.
What is meta-analysis?
Is a statistical method of combining the results of several studies that results in a quantitative summary.
Explain the Minnesota Twin Studies.
Bouchard et al. 1990. Studies MZA and MZT with participants all over the world. Bouchard et al. estimates that the heritability of IQ is 70% genetic.
Explain the weaknesses of the Minnesota Twin Studies
-The experiment relied on media coverage
-Ethical concerns about the way he reunited the twin
-Equal environment assumption
Who designed the experiment that focuses on parents who had raised both adopted and natural children? Explain their experiment.
Scarr and Weinberg (1977) and Horn et al (1979). They tested IQ for natural and adopted children and found a little difference. The result is backed up with the adoptive parent's high class status.
Explain Hainer et al.'s experiment
1988. Is a PET scan study. They observed individuals with high and low IQ. The participants are subjected to reasoning problems. Heiner et al. found that individuals with higher IQ had lower metabolic rates. This is known as the less effort hypothesis.
Who found that the correlation between parent and child's IQ increases overtime?
Plomin and Petrill in 1997.
Explain the Flynn effect.
James R. Flynn. He found that IQ scores increases by three every ten year. The cause of gain is unknown, but is postulated by the increase of nutrient. Experts argue whether they actually have an increase in intelligence or an increasing ability to crack intelligence tests.
Explain the theory of natural selection.
The theory of natural selection states the survival of the fittest. Which is organism that are better suited with the environment will flourish, while those who are not suited for the environment dies. As generations pass, the unsuited species will all die. This is called adaptation.
In 2007, a research in Kyoto University were conducted in order to study spatial memory between humans and young chimps. Who and what is this experiment all about?
Professor Tetsuro Matsuzawa in 2007. He made a screen where numbers 1 to 9 will flash one by one. The participants are later asked to resequence the numbers by touching the screen again. He found out that the chimps are better than the humans, regardless of how fast the number flashes. He then concluded that this is caused by the need of chimps to remember their food source as well as dangers. Humans had lost much of this trait because we developed language.
Explain Fessler's experiment!
In 2006, he took pregnant women and subject them to disgusting scenarios. He found out that women during the first trimester had the highest level of disgust than the other two trimesters. He then concluded that this is caused by side effect of suppressing the immune system
In 2004, an internet survey was conducted to test disgust levels. The results backed up Fessler's experiment. Who did this and what is this experiment all about?
Curtis et al. in 2004. He did an internet survey to test whether there are patterns in people's disgust responses. The participants were subjected to images where they will rate how disgusting the image is. Among the images are infectious or potentially harmful to the immune system. He found out that those images are rated as more disgusting than the other images (bodily fluids for example). He also found out that females score higher than men. Also note that his experiment shows that disgust decreases as age increases.
What are the weakness of evolutionary psychology?
-Confirmation bias
-Statements about what humans "used to be" are hypothetical.
-Underestimates the role of cultural influences
How does ethic play a role in genetics and behavior?
-Misuse of information
-Stigmatizing results
-Exposure of unexpected information
-Need of coding information