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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
mental disorder
any behavior or emotional state that causes an individual great suffering or worry, is self-defeating or self-destructive, or is maladaptive and disrupts the person's relationships or the larger community
generalized anxiety disorder
a continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dread, apprehension, difficulties in concentration, and signs of motor tension
posttraumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person who has experience a traumatic or life-threatening event has symptoms such a psychic numbing, reliving of the trauma, and increased physiological arousal
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person experiences recurring panic attacks, period of intense fear and feelings of impending doom or death, accompanied by physiological symptoms such a rapid breathing and pulse, and dizziness
an exaggerated, unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or objects
a set of phobias, often set off by a panic attack, involving the basic fear of being away from a safe place or person
obsessive-compulsive disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person feels trapped in repetitive, persistent thoughts and repetitive, ritualized behaviors designed to reduce anxiety
major depression
a mood disorder involving disturbances in emotion, behavior, cognition, and body function
personality disorders
rigid, maladaptive personality patterns that cause personal distress or an inability to get along with others
paranoid personality disorder
a disorder characterized by habitually unreasonable and excessive suspiciousness or jealousy
narcissistic personality disorder
a disorder characterized by an exaggerated sense of self-importance and self-absorption
antisocial personality disorder
a disorder characterized by antisocial behavior such a lying, stealing, manipulation of others and sometimes violence; and a lack of guilt, shame, and empathy
a psychotic disorder or group of disorders marked by positive symptoms (e.g. delusions, hallucinations, disorganized and incoherent speech, and inappropriate behavior) and negative symptoms (e.g.. Emotional flatness and loss of motivation.
an extreme mental disturbance involving distorted perceptions and irrational behavior; it may have psychological or organic causes
any surgical procedure that destroys selected areas of the brain believed to be involved in emotional disorders or violent, impulsive behavior
electroconvulsive therapy
a procedure used in cases of prolonged and severe major depression, in which a brief brain seizure is induced
antipsychotic drugs
drugs used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
antidepressant drugs
drugs used primarily in the treatment of mood disorders, especially depression and anxiety
drugs commonly but often inappropriately prescribed for patients who complain of unhappiness, anxiety, or worry
lithium carbonate
a drugs frequently given to people suffering from bipolar disorder
placebo effect
the apparent success of a medication or treatment that is due to the patient's expectations or hopes rather than to the drug or treatment itself
systematic desensitization
in behavior therapy, a step by step process of desensitizing a client to a feared objects or experience; based on the classical conditioning procedure of counter conditioning
aversive conditioning
in behavior therapy, a method in which punishment is substituted for the reinforcement that perpetuates a bad habit
exposure treatment
in behavior therapy, a method in which punishing a person suffering from an anxiety disorder, such as a phobia or panic attacks, is taken directly into the feared situation until the anxiety subsides
therapeutic alliance
the bond of confidence and mutual understanding established between therapist and client, which allows them to work together to solve the clients problems
dissociative identity disorder
a controversial disorder marked by the appearance within one person of two or more distinct personalities, each with its own name and traits; commonly known as multiple personality disorder
in psychodynamic therapies, a critical step in which the client transfers unconscious emotions or reactions, such as emotional feelings about his or her parents, onto the therapist
a diagnostic manual whose aim is to provide clear diagnostic categories for purposes of the study and treatment of mental disorders
panic attacks
short-lived but intense feelings of spontaneous anxiety
a general state of apprehension or psychological tension
learned helplessness
a theory of depression which holds that people become depressed when their efforts to avoid pain or to control the environment consistently fail
vulnerable-stress approach
a theory of depression which holds that depression and other disorders result from an interaction between individual vulnerabilities and environmental stresses
catatonic stupor
a symptom of schizophrenia in which a person withdraws completely, sitting without moving for hours
emotional flatness
unresponsive facial expressions, poor eye contact, and diminished emotions
an outdated method of treatment in which "psychic pressures" were released by drilling holes into the skull of a person exhibiting symptoms of mental illness
prefrontal lobotomy
a type of psychosurgery involving crushing nerve fibers running from the prefrontal lobe to other areas of the brain
A class of antidepressant drugs which elevates the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain by blocking an enzyme that deactivates these neurotransmitters
tricyclic antidepressants
a class of antidepressants drugs which boost norepinephrine and serotonin levels by preventing the reabsorption of these substances by the cells that have released them
a class of antidepressant drugs which boost serotonin levels by preventing the reabsorption of the substance by the cells that have released it
cognitive therapy
a therapeutic approach that involves helping clients identify the beliefs and expectations that might be unnecessarily prolonging their unhappiness, conflicts and other problems
rational emotive therapy
a therapeutic approach that involves using rational arguments to directly challenge a clients unrealistic beliefs or expectations
family therapy
a therapeutic approach that involves the whole family unit through identifying unhealthy communication and coping patterns and using that as a basis for individual treatment
group therapy
a therapeutic approach in which people with the same or different problems are put together to find solutions
a therapeutic technique involving intense analysis of a patient's past and unconscious motives, intended to lend the client insight into the reasons for his or her symptoms and unhappiness
free association
a therapeutic technique in which a client is encouraged to say whatever comes to their mind
humanistic therapy
a therapeutic technique in which a client starts form the assumption that people seek self-actualization and self-fulfillment
existential therapy
a therapeutic approach in clients are encouraged to explore the meaning of existence and confront the greater questions of death, freedom, free will, alienation from oneself and others, loneliness, and meaninglessness
scientist-practitioner gap
a major divide that exists within the proactive of therapy in which psychodynamic assumptions and methods and those of the other, research-based practices