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78 Cards in this Set

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Ischemia will result in:

Vasodilation of the arterioles, sudden drop in blood pressure (all of these except a)

Why is it essential to maintain venous pressure?

Venous pressure is maintained so EDV can be maintained. If EDV is dropped, the heart cannot pump blood well.

In Alzheimer's disease, a defective cytoskeletal protein __ has been implicated.

TAU

Which of the following will affect mean arteriole pressure?

Autonomic innervation, temperature, active hyperemia, EDV (all of these)

Which of the following is in proper order regarding the inflammatory reflex?

Tissue damage, vagal sensory fibers, brain stem, parasympathetic fibers, celiac ganglion

Which of the following will NOT result from increased carotid pressure?

Arteriole vasodilation

A carotid massage would be used to treat:

Tachycardia

An edema may be caused by:

A decrease in plasma protein, increase in interstitial fluid protein, liver malfunction (all of these except A)

In the heart, NE acts via the __ receptor and is released from __.

1. Beta-1


2. Postganglionic fiber.

What is the role of If channels?

They are "funny" because unlike other channels, they open when negative, directly after an AP. They allow both K and Na in, causing a depolarization, which open ICaT channels.

A tastant is detected by ___ located in the __.

1. Gustatory cells


2. taste buds

The __ and __ prevent valvular prolapse during ventricular systole.

1. Chordae tendinae


2. Papillary muscle

Define Starling's Law.

The greater the distension of the ventricular wall, the more forceful the contraction is.

Which of the following does not emerge directly from the aortic arch?

Right subclavian artery.

A person with a heart beat of 80/minute and stroke volume of 80mL would have a cardiac output of __.

6.4 L

During a period of intense studying, __ waves will predominate in the EEG.

Beta

Hemoglobin can regulate blood flow through an organ by releasing __.

Nitric oxide

A muscle pump will affect:

Venous return pressure, EDV, cardiac output, MAP, movement of lymph (all of these)

Atrial natriuretic factor, ANF, is an effective diuretic because:

Inhibits aldosterone release by the adrenal cortex

The most conspicuous tunic of an artery is the __.

Tunica media.

In the beta cell of the pancreas, depolarization is brought about by __.

Closed K channels.

During the QRS phase, the atrio-ventricular valves are:

Closed.

Which of the following contributes to heartbeat coordination?

Intercalated disc, gap junctions, myogenic nature of some cells, specialized conducting system (all)

Which of the following represents the normal pathway of an A. P. (action potential) in a healthy heart?

SA node, AV node, bundle of His, Purkinje fibers

During the ___ phase of the heart cycle the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves will be open:

Ventricular systole, Atrial diastole

In order to slow down the heart rate one could:

Apply a muscarine agonist

In the baroreceptor reflex the afferent pathway to the medulla is via the __ and __.

1. Glossopharyngeal


2. Vagus

All of the following can be applied to the conducting system of the heart EXCEPT:

Cells have a plateau phase. (only contractile fibers have this)

The sensitivity of the muscle spindle is maintained by:

Gamma motor fiber activation

Why does the plateau phase exist in contractile myocardial fibers?

Funny channels open when negative, directly after AP. This opens ICaTs which are slow acting long lasting Ca channels. This prolongs the depolarization and makes repolarization take longer.

Which of the following represents an autoregulatory mechanism for blood flow through an organ?

Active hyperemia and pressure regulation (both A and B)

Which of the following applies to the cross extensor reflex:

The ipsilateral interneuron affecting the contralateral flexor is inhibitory

Vasodilation of blood vessels is induced by NO because it activates the enzyme __ within the smooth muscle cells of the vessel.

Guanylyl cyclase.

Define Cataplexy.

The state one can fall under when suffering from narcolepsy. Muscle tonus is lost, but you are still awake in sleep paralysis.

In the fetus, blood will bypass the liver via the __.

Ductus venosus

What is the ductus venosus?

A fetal blood vessel that bypasses the liver, instead going to the inferior vena cava, then to the right atrium.

What is the fate of the umbilical arteries after birth?

Proximal region becomes internal iliac arteries, distal becomes the umbilical ligament on the bladder.

__ is a protein needed to activate the Ca pump (SERCA) in the cardiac muscle cell.

Phospholamban

During relaxation of the cardiac fiber, Ca leaves the cell by what process?

Secondary active transport

In the human circulatory system the greatest amount of blood volume is found within the __.

Veins and venules.

Which of the following is part of the fibrous skeleton of the heart?

Atrioventricular valves.

When lymph is returned to the blood it is deposited at __.

where the subclavian vein and jugular vein meet in the neck.

The stimulus for the myotactic reflex is __ and the stimulus for the inverse myotactic reflex is __.

1. Change in the muscle length


2. Tension to the golgi tendon organ

Starling's Principles are associated with:

Bulk flow

Compared to the superior vena cava, the pulmonary veins ___.

Carry blood that is high in pO2.

A brain disorder that results from the deletion of over 20 genes and is manifested by facial deformities and over compensation by the left side of the cerebrum is:

Williams Syndrome

Which of the following will affect mean arteriole pressure?

Autonomic innervation, temperature, active hyperemia, EDV (all of these)

What is endothelin?

Endothelin is a hormone released by the heart. A potent vasoconstrictor.

Which of the following will NOT result from increased carotid pressure?

Increase in mean arterial pressure

In the heart, AcH acts via the __ receptor and is released from __.

1. muscarine


2. vagus nerve

What is involved with cytopempsis?

Large molecules get across the capillary by vesicular transport. Capillary cells form endocytic vesicle on the blood side, which is transported to the outside.

During the sleep phase which of the following are low:

Serotonin, histamine, NE (all of theses except D, melatonin)

What is meant by pyramid decussation?

Decussation means to "cross over". The pyramidal tracts reach the beginning of the spinal cord, and cross over. This is why our left brain hemisphere controls the right side of our body, and the right hemisphere controls the left.

The serous membrane of the heart is the __ layer.

Outer or pericardium

What are chylomicrons?

Re-esterified lipids that have cholesterol and proteins, which are too big to get into the blood.

What is the fossa ovalis?

The foramen ovale closes up after birth, and becomes a depression in the wall of the interatrial septum.

__ is a protein needed to activate the Ca pump in the cardiac muscle cell.

ATPase

During relaxation of the cardiac fiber, Ca leaves the cell by what process?

An antiporter that employs secondary active transport.

Active vasodilation of the arterioles of the skeletal muscle is accomplished by activating __ nerve fibers and the release of the neurotransmitter __.

1. Sympathetic


2. Epinephrine

The AP in the conducting fibers:

is for the most part calcium dependent, is a spontaneous potential, utilizes ICaL channels, utilizes ICaT channels (all apply except C)

REST may be protective against this disease:

Alzheimer's

Demonstrates genetic anticipation:

Huntington's disease

Due to a deficiency in hypocretin:

Narcolepsy

The right cerebral hemisphere is affected:

Williams syndrome.

The left cerebral hemisphere is affected:

Savant syndrome.

Elfin like features may be apparent:

Williams Syndrome

Typically, the person has IQ between 40 and 70:

Savant syndrome

In the inflammatory reflex, an antagonist to __ will allow the macrophages to continue releasing cytokines and the inflammatory reaction will intensify.

AcH

What is the effect of endocannibinoids on glial cells?

Pain suppression.

The transfer of non-nucleic acid (non viral or genetic) particles called __ have been suggested as causes for many neurodegenerative disorders.

Prions.

An important g-protein __ functions in phototransduction in the retina.

Transducin.

In the beta cell of the pancreas depolarization and subsequent release of insulin is triggered by the closure of the __ channels.

Potassium.

In cardiac muscle cells the Z line is:

Associated with the intercalated disc

The __ nerve provides both afferent and efferent signals as part of the inflammatory reflex.

Vagus nerve

Which is a shared feature of both the heart and capillaries:

Simple squamous epithelium.

The KCC2 is implicated in:

Allodynia, chronic pain (both A and B)

During the process of chewing the __ reflex is activated.

Stretch

Which of the following will be affected by damage to the gamma motor fiber:

Contraction of the intrafusal muscle fibers