Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/44

Click to flip

44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Energy

Ability to do work


Potential Energy- energy housed in a body, energy stored within a system

Anabolism

Building up energy


Biosynthesis


Building complex molecules from simpler ones (building up tissue types and organs, cell growth and repair, development of body, monomers/subunits into macromolecules)

Catabolism

Breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones


Makes materials available for anabolism


Makes energy available for work

Aerobic Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = ATP + 6CO2 + 6H2O


glucose (food) + oxygen = energy

Aerobic Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis


Citric Acid Cycle


Electron Transport Chain

Coenzymes

NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide)


-NAD vs NADH (oxidized vs reduced forms)


FAD (Flavin Adenin Dinucleotide)


-FAD vs FADH and FADH2 (oxidized vs reduced forms)


Acetyl CoA

Glycolysis

Cytosol


Spits glucose (6 C sugar) into two 3 C sugars


Each 3 C sugar is oxidized to form 2 pyruvate molecules


Energy gain ( 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH)

Citric Acid Cycle

In mitochondria


Enzymes transform 2 pyruvate from glycolysis into 2 Acetyl CoA


Energy gain (2 ATP, 8 NADH, 2 FADH2)

Electron Chain

In mitochondria


NADH and FADH2 from CAC and Glycolysis travel along membrane donating electrons

Fermentation Anaerobic Cellular Respiration

Generates ATP in absence of o2 = anaerobic (2 ATP per glucose molecule (less efficient))


Normal glycolysis and CAC, but problem in ETC (NADH build up)

Lactic Acid Fermentation

Animal Cells: muscle cramps from increased acidity from increased lactic acid

Alcohol Fermentation

Other cells: yeast, fungi, bacteria


Ethanol = alcohol

Neurosoma or soma

Contains nucleus, organelles

Nissl Bodies

Organelles that make neurotransmitters (chemical signals)

Dendrites

Branch from soma (increases distance over which signals can be received)


Primary site for receiving signals

Axon

Branch from soma (increases distance over which signals can be transmitted)


Conveys information away from neuron

Schwann Cells

Make and enclose axon in myelin sheath


Provide protection and insulation for neurons


Speeds up signal transmission

Central Nervous System

Brain, Spinal Column


Interneurons (receive signals via afferent pathway, integrate information, send signals via efferent pathway)

Peripheral Nervous System

Nerves of the trunk and limbs


Sensory division and motor division

Glial Cells (CNS)

Oligodendrocytes (insulate axons)


Ependymal Cells (produce cerebrospinal fluid)


Mircroglia (macrophages (specific to brain))


Astocytes (help to seal blood brain barrier)

Glial Cells (PNS)

Schwann Cells (insulate axons)


Satellite Cells (insulate neurosoma)

Refractory Period

Time to re-polarize

Saltatory Conduction

Nodes of Ranvier (small sections of unmyelinated axon, abundance on voltage-dependent gates, generate new action potentials, ensures signal keeps original strength)

Somatic Nervous System

Voluntary Movement


Involuntary Movement (reflexes) and some may be conditioned (ex. Pavlov's dog)

Autonomic Nervous System

Self governed (involuntary actions)


Sympathetic nervous division (thoracic and lumbar region of spinal cord, accelerates (Fight or flight))


Parasympathetic nervous division (brain, cervical and sacral region of spinal cord) (Decelerates)

Neurotransmitter

Chemical signal released by neuron


Hormones may act as neurotransmitters


Acetylcholine


Norepinephrine

Acetylcholine

One neurotransmitter secreted/used by both divisions


Several effector cells/tissues

Norepinephrine

Epinephrine- slightly different makeup but same effect


(known as adrenaline and stress hormone)


Secreted largely by sympathetic


Promotes labor contractions, inhabits digestion, regulated blood vessel diameter (where needed), dilates bronchioles, excites heart rate, fight or flight

Brain Anatomy (basic)

Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Brainstem

Cerebrum

Largest part of the brain, left and right hemispheres, highly folded to yield high surface area


Lobes: (frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insula)


Limbic System

Cerebellum

Left and right hemispheres, houses most of brain's neurons, regulates motor coordination, tactile


Spatial perception (3D, maps)


Temporal perception (time)


Combining types of perception (hand/eye coordination)

Brainstem

Medulla oblongata (shared pathway, regulated rhythms)


Pons


Midbrain


Diencephalon (hypothalamus and homeostasis)

Modality

The type of stimulus produced/sensation detected

Phasic Receptors

Quick to adapt

Tonic Receptors

Slow to adapt

Sensory receptor classification

Thermoreceptors


Photoreceptors


Nociceptors


Chemoreceptors


Mechanoreceptors

Thermoreceptors

Stimulated by presence of heat (or lack of)


Internal regulate core temperature


External regulate surface temperature

Photoreceptors

Stimulated by light wavelengths (electromagnetic energy)


Rods (rhodopsin, vision)


Cones (photopsin, color vision, color blindness)

Nociceptors

Type of pain sensation changes with anatomy of placement (quality and quantity)


Chemoreceptors

Gustatory


Stimulated by solutes


Olfactory


Stimulated by solutes (odors, scents)


Pheromones

Mechanoreceptors

Stimulated by touch, motion, changes in pressure

Sensory Dysfunction

Failure to receive sensations (blindness, deafness)


Perception Dysfunction

Failure to appropriately interpret sensations (agnosia, schizophrenia, illusion vs. hallucination)

Sensory receptors

To sense: reception, transduction, amplification, transmission, integration)