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297 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many human skeletal muscles are there?
What are five functions of muscles?
Maintain posture
Control of openings and passageways
Body heat production
What are the three connective tissues of a muscle?
Which connective tissue covers the whole muscle belly and blends into connective tissue that separates muscles?
What connective tissue is sleightly thicker and surrounds a bundle of cells called a fascicle?
What type of connective tissue is a thin layer of areolar tissue that surrounds each cell and allows room for capillaries and nerve fibers?
What type of a fascia is found between adjacent muscles?
Deep Fascia
What type of fascia is found between skin and muscles and contains adipose tissue?
Superficial Fascia (also known as hypodermis)
What are three types of muscle attachments?
Direct attachment to bone
Indirect attachment to bone
Attachment to dermis
The intercostal muscles is an example of what type of attachment?
Direct attachment to bone
The biceps brachii or abdominal muscle is an example of what type of muscle attachment?
Indirect attachment to bone
What type of muscle attachment involves tentons or aponeurosis?
Indirect attachment to bone.
Which part of the skeletal muscle attaches to the mobile end of the muscle?
The Insertion part
What part of the skeletal muscle attaches to the stationary end of the muscle?
The Origin
Which part of the muscle consists of the thicker middle region of muscle?
What type of skeletal muscle shape is thick in the middle and tapered at the ends?
What shape of muscle is the biceps brachii?
What muscle shape is broad at the origin and tapers into a narrow insertion?
What shape of muscle is the pectoralis major?
What shape of muscle has parallel fascicles?
What shape of muscle is the rectus abdominis?
What shape of muscle acts as sphincters?
What shape of muscle is the orbicularis oris?
What shape of muscle do the fascicles insert obliquely on a tendon?
The deltoid has what muscle shape?
During elbow flexion, what is the prime mover?
Biceps Brachii
During elbow flexion, what muscle is the synergist?
During elbow flexion, what muscle is the antagonist?
Triceps brachii
What would be an example of a fixator muscle during elbow flexion?
What types of muscles are contained within a region?
Intrinsic Muscles
What types of muscles move the fingers but are found outside the region?
Extrinsic Muscles
Where do the cranial nerves from the brain exit the skull?
What are the five universal characteristics of a muscle?
How long can myofibers get?
up to 30cm
What is the sequence of connective tissue that exists between muscle fiber and bone?
Endomysium, Perimysium, Epimysium, Fascia, Tendon
Where is Calcium stored in the muscle?
Terminal Cisternae
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
What types of cells can multiply to produce a small number of new myofibers?
Unfused satellite cells
What carries electric current to the cellular interior?
The T tubules
What is the sarcoplasm filled with?
myofibrils (which are protein microfilaments called myofilaments)
What are two important molecules in the muscle?
Glycogen and Myoglobin
What are the calcium storage sacs called?
Terminal cisternae
Thick filaments are made of?
myosin molecules
Thin filaments are made of?
What molecule blocks the active sites?
What is a huge springy protein found in elastic filaments?
What connects thick filament to Z disc structure?
What helps to keep thick and thin filaments aligned, resists overstretching, and helps the cell recoil to its resting length?
What are two contractile proteins?
Actin and Myosin
What are the two regulatory proteins?
Tropomyosin and Troponin.
Which band is the thick filament region?
the A band
Which band is the thin filament region?
The I band
Where can the cell bodies of somatic motor neurons found?
The Brainstem or Spinal Cord
What is the name for each motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates?
Motor unit
What is the name of the region where nerve fibers make a functional contact with its target cell?
Where are the vesicles filled with ACh located?
In the synaptic knob
Where is the region with all of the muscle cell surface?
Motor end plate.
Which enzyme breaks down ACh and causes relaxation?
What binds to cholinesterase inhibitors and renders their use inoperable?
What causes tetanus or lockjaw?
Clostridium tetani bacteria
What substance blocks glycine release in the spinal cord?
What is the difference in charge across the membrane potential of a muscle cell?
What type of actin makes up the two intertwined strands?
F or fibrous actin
What makes up each subunit of actin that has an active site?
G or globular actin
What does the A and I stand for in the bands?
Anisotrophic and Isotropic
What constitutes a sarcomere?
One complete Z disc
Do the thick or thin filaments change length during shortening?
Where are the cell bodies of somatic motor neurons?
The brainstem or spinal cord
What are the axons of somatic motor neurons called?
Somatic Motor fibers
What is a motor neuron and all the muscle fibers that it innervates called?
A Motor Unit
What provides the ability to sustain long-term contraction?
A motor unit
What how many muscle fibers per nerve fiber would constitute fine control?
20 muscle fibers per nerve fiber
What is the average normal muscle fibers per one nerve fiber?
How many muscle fibers does the gastrocnemius muscle have per nerve fiber?
What is release from a neuromuscular junction?
A Neurotransmitter
What is the neurotransmitter of the muscle cell?
What are two components of a synapse of a muscle cell?
A Synaptic knob (sender)
Motor end plate (reciever)
What is the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine and causes relaxation?
What envelopes and isolates the NMJ?
Schwann cell
What contains cholinesterase inhibitors that prevent acetylcholinesterase from degrading ACh?
What causes tetanus or lockjaw?
A toxin of Clostridium tetani
What does the toxin of Clostridium tetani block the release of?
What causes flaccid paralysis unable to contract because of a competition with ACh?
Name the step of excitation:
Nerve signal stimulates voltage-gated calcium channels and cause the exocytosis of synaptic vesicles with ACh
Steps 1 & 2
Name the step of muscle excitation:

Binding of ACh opens Sodium and Potassium channels causing an end-plate potential (EPP)
Steps 3 and 4
Name the step of muscle excitation:

Voltage change in EPP open voltage gated channels in plasme membrane causing an action potential
Step 5
Name the step in excitation of muscle contraction:

Action potential spreads over sarcolemma into the T tubules where voltage-gated channels open causing calcium gates to open in the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Steps 6 & 7
What is the step of excitation:

Calcium release causes the binding of myosin to active sites on actin.
Steps 8 & 9
Name the step of muscle excitation contraction:

Myosin head with ATP can form a cross-bridge
Steps 10 & 11
What enzyme causes the release of energy for the myosin head to move into position?
myosin ATPase
What step of contraction is this:

Power stroke shows myosin head releasing ADP and phosphate as it pulls the actin filament and later releases as myosin binds another ATP
Steps 12 & 13
What step is this in relaxation:

Stimulation ceases and acrtylcholinesterase removes ACh from receptors
Steps 14 & 15
What step of relaxation is this:

Active transport pumps calcium back into SR where it binds to calsequestrin
Step 16

ATP is needed for muscle relaxation AND contration
What does calcium bind to in the SR?
What is this step of relaxation:

Loss of calcium from sarcoplasm results in hiding of active sites and cessation of the production or maintenance of tension.
Steps 17 & 18
What does the amount of tension generated depend on?
Length of muscle before it was stimulated
What does an overly contracted muscle produce?
Weak contraction
Why does a too stretched muscle generate weak contraction?
The lack of overlap hinders cross bridge formation
What length produces the greatest force in contraction?
Optimum resting length
What maintains the optimum length?
Muscle tone or partial contraction
What is the term for the stiffening of the body about 3-4 hours after death?
Rigor Mortis
How long does rigor mortis last?
48 hours
Why does rigor mortis occur?
Influx of Calcium from dead SR and lack of ATP for relaxation
What causes the rigor mortis to dissipate?
Decay of the myofilaments
What is the term for the minimum voltage necessary to produce contraction?
What is a single brief stimulus that allows for a quick contraction and relaxation called?
a Twitch
What are the three phases of twitch contraction?
Latent period
Contraction Phase
Relaxation Phase
Refractory period
What influences twitch strength?
Stimulation frequency
Concentration of Calcium
Hydration of muscle fibers
What type of contraction develops tension without changing length?
Isometric Contraction
What type of contraction involves changing the length of the muscle?
Isotonic Contraction
What is the term for tension development while shortening?
What is the term for tension development while lengthening?
What is the enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from one ADP to another?
What enzyme removes phospates from creatine phosphate?
Creatine kinase
What are the causes of fatigue?
ATP synthesis declines to lack of glycogen

sodium-potassium pumps fail to work due to lack of ATP

Lactic acid lowers pH inhibiting enzyme function

Motor nerve fibers use up acetylcholine
What is the ability to maintain high-intensity exercise determined by?
Maximum oxygen uptake
What is the maximum oxygen uptake proportional to?
Body size
What is carbohydrate loading?
Diet to pack glycogen into muscle cells
What is a typical amount of oxygen debt?
11 liters
What does the extra oxygen obtained during oxygen debt allow for?
Replaces reserves
Replenishes phosphagen system
Reconverts lactic acid to glucose
Serves the elevated metabolic rate
What type of fiber has more mitochodria, myoglobin, and capillaries?
Slow twitch
What type of fiber is adapted for aerobic respiration and is resistant to fatigue?
Slow twitch
The soleus and postural muscles are what type of muscle fiber?
Slow twitch
What type of muscle fibers are rich in enzymes for phosphagen and glycogen-lactic acid systems?
Fast twitch
In which type of muscle fibers does the sarcoplasmic reticulus release calcium quickly?
Fast twitch
The gastrocnemius muscle is an example of what type of muscle fiber?
Fast twitch
What are factors that increase strength of contraction?
Muscle size and fascicle arrangement

Size of motor units and motor unit recruitment

frequency of stimulus

length of muscle at the beginning of contraction
How does weight lifting increase muscle mass?
It stimulates cell enlargement due to synthesis of more myofilaments
How does endurance training affect the muscle cells?
It produces an increase in mitochondria, glycogen and density of capillaries
How does the cardiac muscle compare to the skeleton muscle?
The cells are shorter, thicker, branched, and are linked at intercalated discs
What allows cells to stimulate their neighbors in a cardiac muscle?
electrical gap
What keep cells from pulling apart in cardic muscles?
mechanical junctions
What part of the cardic muscle is larger?
The T tubules
What allow the cardic muscle to be autorhythmic?
Pacemaker cells
How many nuclei does a smooth muscle contain?
one nucleus
Does a smooth muscle have striations?
What is lacking from a smooth muscle?
T Tubules
Where does calcium come from for smooth muscle contraction?
extracellular fluid
The muscles of the arteries, iris, air passages, etc are examples of what type of smooth muscle?
Multiunit smooth
What type of smooth muscle is found in most blood vessels and viscera?
Single-unit smooth
What causes a smooth muscle to twitch?
hormones, CO2, low pH, stretch
What type of stimulation of a smooth muscle opens mechanically-gated calcium channels?
What type of stimulus is food entering the esophagus?
Where is a stress-relaxation response found?
urinary bladder
What is joint luxation? Does it occur in zero gravity?
Dislocation of the joint, and does not occur due to zero gravity
What is the main form of muscular distrophy?
Duchenne MD
What does fascioscapulohumeral MD affect?
Face and shoulder only
What is an autoimmune disease where antibodies attack the NMJ and bind to ACh receptors?
Myesthenia Gravis
What are some symptoms of Myesthenia Gravis?
Drooping eyelids and double vision
Difficulty swallowing
Weakness of the limbs
Respiratory failure
What are shinsplints?
Pain in the front lower leg
What is lateral epicondylitis more commonly known as?
Tennis elbow
What are athletic injuries normally treated with?
Rest, ice, compression, and elevation
From where does the spinal cord extend?
Foramen Magnum
After a spinal nerve recieves sensory information, what does it do with it?
Relays motor signals to muscles and glands
What part of the nervous system is associated with the spinal cord?
Central Nervous System (CNS)
What are the spinal nerves apart of?
The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
What are three functions of the spinal cord?
In an adult, where does the spinal cord extend to?
L1 Vertebrae
How many pairs of spinal nerves do we have?
Where are the cauda equinae spinal nerves located?
L2 to S5
What are the three fibrous layers that enclose the spinal cord?
Dura mater
Arachnoid Mater
Pia Mater
What is the dura mater surrounded by?
epidural space
What type of tissue is composed of that arachnoid mater?
Simple squamous epithelium
What is the delicate membrane that is adherent to the spinal cord?
Pia mater
What part of the pia mater anchors the cord to the coccyx?
Filium terminale
What part of the pia mater extends through the arachnoid to the dura to anchor the cord?
Denticulate ligaments
What is a neural tube defect called?
Spina Bifida
What is a sac protruding from the spine called?
Spina bifida cystica
What supplement can reduce the risk of spina bifida?
Folic acid supplements
What is composed of gray matter?
Neuron cell bodies
What is composed of white matter?
Myelinated axons
What does the dorsal root of the spinal nerve consist of?
Sensory fibers
What does the ventral root of the spinal nerve consist of?
Motor fibers
What connects the ventral and dorsal horns?
Gray commissure punctured by a central canal
What are the three pairs of columns or funiculi in the white matter?
Dorsal, lateral, and anterior
What fills the columns of white matter?
tracts or fasciculi
Which direction do the ascending and descending tracts travel?
Up or Down
What is the term for when fibers cross sides?
What is the term for when the origin and destination are on the same side?
What is the term for when the origin and destination are on opposite sides?
What is the disease where motor neurons in the brainstem and ventral horn of the spinal cord is destroyed?
How is polio spread?
Fecal contamination in water
What is the disease that causes sclerosis of spinal cord due to astrocyte failure to reabsorb glutamate?
ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) or Lou Gehrig
With Lou Gherig's disease what happens to the sensory and intellectual functions of an individual?
They remain unaffected
What are the three parts of a nerve?
What part of a nerve covers the nerves?
What part of a nerve surrounds a fascicle?
What part of a nerve separates individual nerve fibers?
What part of the nerve is penetrated by blood vessels?
Where can ganglia be found?
What is the dorsal root ganglion?
Sensory Cell Bodies
What are the three types of proximal branches of the spinal nerves?
Dorsal root
Ventral Root
Cauda equina
In the proximal branch, what par is sensory input to the spinal cord?
Dorsal Root
In the proximal branch, What is the motor output of the spinal cord?
Ventral Root
Where is the cauda equina located in the proximal branch?
L2 to C0
What are the three components of the distal branches of nerve fibers?
Dorsal Ramus
Ventral Ramus
Meningeal Branch
What distal branch supplies dorsal body muscle and skin?
Dorsal Ramus
What distal branch goes to ventral skin and muscles and limbs?
Ventral ramus
What distal branch goes to the meninges, vertebrae, and ligaments
Meningeal branch
How many spinal nerves are in the cervical portion?
How many spinal nerves are in the thoracic portion?
How many spinal nerves are in the lumbar portion?
How many spinal nerves are in the sacral region?
How many spinal nerves are in the coccygeal region?
What ventral nerve plexus supplies neck and phrenic nerve to the diaphragm?
Cervical in neck C1-C5
What nerve plexus supplies the upper limb and some of the shoulder and neck?
Brachial in armpit C5 to T1
What nerve plexus supplies abdominal wall, anterior thigh & genitalia?
Lumber in lower back - L1 to L4
What nerve plexus supplies the remainder of butt and lower limb?
Sacral in pelvis - L4, L5, S1 - S4
What is the longest nerve in the body?
Psiatic nerve
What is the psiatic nerve apart of?
Sacral Plexus
What is the tibial nerve part of?
Sacral Plexus
Where do spinal nerves recieve sensory input from?
What are skin eruption along the path of a nerve?
Where do Vericells-zoster or Herpes-zoster (chicken pox) remain for life?
Dorsal root ganglia
What types of fibers carry signal to the brain/spinal cord?
What types of fibers carry impulses to the muscles?
What is the sense organ that monitors length of musle and how fast muscles change in length?
What reflex helps to maintain posture and equilibrium?
Myotatic or Stretch Reflex
What prevents muscles from working against each other?
Reciprocal inhibition
What type of reflex is the withdrawl of foot from pain?
Flexor reflex
What allows us to maintain balance while lifting the other leg?
Crossed-extensor reflex
What are the early symptoms of spinal cord trauma called?
Spinal Shock
What follows tissue damage in spinal cord injury?
Post-traumatic infarction
What types of neurons process, store and retrieve information?
What type of neuron composes 90% of our neurons?
What are organs that carry out responses called?
What are the three fundamental properties of neurons?
In the brain which is deep, white matter or gray matter?
white matter
In the spinal cord, which is deep, white matter or gray matter?
Gray matter
What is another term for the cell body or soma?
What is the compartmentalization of the ER called?
Nissl bodies
What is the most common neuron?
What neuron is composed of many dentrites and one axon?
What type of neuron is composed of one dendrite and one axon?
The olfactory, retina, and ear neurons are of which type?
What types of neurons are specialized for quick signaling?
Unipolar neurons
What type of neuron is a long myleninated fiber that bypasses soma?
Unipolar neuron
What type of neuron is found in sensory function of skin?
Unipolar neuron
What type of neuroglial cells for the myelin sheaths in the CNS?
What are the most abundant neuroglial cells?
What contributes to the blood-brain barrier and regulates composition of tissue fluid?
What are the cells that line cavities to form the cerebrial spinal fluid?
Ependymal cells
What are the macrophages found in the CNS called?
What cells myelinate fibers of the PNS?
Schwann cells
What is a neuroglial cell that has an unknown function?
Satellite cell
What is the composition of a myelin sheath?
20% protein and 80% lipid
What is the outermost coil of a myelin sheath called?
Neurilemma or schwann ell
Does the CNS have a neurilemma or endoneurium?
What is the disease where the oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths of the CNS degenerate?
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
What is a hereditary disorder seen mainly in infants of Jewish ancestory?
Tay-Sachs Disease
What must be present in order for the regeneration of peripheral nerve fibers?
Soma and Neurilemmal tube in tact
What is the resting membrane potential of living cells?
What can stimulate disturbances in membrane potential?
chemicals, light, heat, or mechanical
What occurs when sodium gated channels open?
What are the three characteristics of action potentials?
Graded, Decremental, Reversible
What is the threshold potential?
What is the peak voltage in an action potential?
What type of refractory period will inhibit an action potential?
Absolute refractory period
What is a characteristic of an absolute refractory period?
Sodium gates are open
What is a characteristic of a relative refractory period?
Potassium gates are open
In the resting state which voltage gated channels are open?
At what speed does a nerve signal travel at in unmyelinated fibers?
What is the term of conduction with myelinated fibers?
What neuron is releasing the neurotransmitter?
Presynaptic Neuron
What are the three types of synapses?
Who was the first to demonstrate the function of neurotransmitters?
Otto Loewi
How large is the gap at the synaptic cleft?
20 to 40 nm
What type of monoamine are epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine?
What types of monoamines are seratonin and histamine?
Where are neuropeptides stored?
In dense-core vesicles in the axon terminal
What peptide can cause food cravings?
Gut-brain peptides
What is the term for synaptic transmission of the direct transfer of ACh?
Ionic synaptic transmission
What type of synapse transmission relys on a second messanger?
Metabotropic Synapse Transmission
How can a signal be ceased or modified?
Through diffusion, reabsorbtion, or degredation
What can raise or lower the number of receptors or regulate neurotransmitter release, synthesis or breakdown?
Nitric oxide is a type of what?
What kinds of synapses are the decision making components of the nervous system?
Chemical synapses
What are two excitatory neurotransmitters?
Glutamate and Aspartate
What does in influx of Na+ flowing into the cell cause?
Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
What does an influx of Cl- flowing into the cell cause?
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
What are two inhibitory neurotransmitters?
Glycine and GABA
What occurs when a single synapse receives many EPSPs in a short period of time?
Temporal summation
What occurs when a single synapse receives many ESPSs from many presynaptic cells?
Spatial summation
Salty vs sweet is an example of what type of information?
Mild vs strong is an example of what type of information?
How is qualitative information processed?
The types of neurons that fire
How is quantitative information processed?
The strength of the stimuli (recruitment)
How are memories stored?
In memory traces or engrams
What is the term for the modification of synapses to make transmission easier?
Synaptic plasticity
What causes memory to last longer?
What allows memory to be jogged?
Posttetanic potentiation
What type of long-term memory is the retention of facts as texts or words?
What type of memory is the retention of motor skills?
What percent of the population is affected by Alzheimers Disease?
11% @ 65 and 47% @ 85
What disease is characteristic of the atrophy of gyn in cerebral cortex, neurofibrillary tangles, and senile plaques?
Alzheimers Disease
What disease is the progressive loss of motor function in the 50s or 60s
Parkinsons Disease
What is the disease that is the degeneration of dopamine-releasing neurons?
Parkinsons Disease