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39 Cards in this Set

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smooth muscle cells have _____ whereas skeletal muscle fibers do not.
calmodulin
ACh receptors are found mainly in
junctional folds
Single-unit smooth muscle cells can stimulate each other because they have _____.
gap junctions
T or F? Slow oxidative fibers have an abundance of myoglobin and glycogen.
F. just myoglobin.
difference between afferent and efferent neurons
afferent = sensory; specialized to detect stimuli like heat, light, pressure, chemicals & transmit information about them TOWARD the CNS

efferent = motor; send signals FROM CNS to muscle and gland cells (the effectors)
Universal characteristics of muscle
responsiveness (excitability)
conductivity
contractility
extensibility
elasticity
Universal properties of nerve cells
excitability (irritability)
conductivity
secretion
soma
cell body of a neuron
Neuron support cells (= neuroglia or glial cells)
Astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Ependymal cells
Microglial cells
saltatory conduction
process where action potentials appear to jump from node to node; transports information very quickly
astrocytes
most abundant glial cells in the CNS
cover the entire brain surface and most nonsynaptic regions of the neurons in the gray matter of the CNS.
Functions:
form a supportive framework for nervous tissue
have extensions called perivascular feet, which contact the blood capillaries and form a tight seal called the blood-brain barrier
convert blood glucose to lactate and supply this to the neurons for nourishment
secrete nerve growth factors that promote neuron growth and synapse formation
regulate IF chemical composition, control movement of molecules and ions from the blood
occupy space of dying neurons
Oligodendrocyte
large bulbous body with many arm-like extensions, which each wrap around a different neuron's axon
wrapping called a myelin sheath

(IN CNS)
microglial cell
least numerous..phagocytize and destroy microorganisms, wander through CNS and replicate in response to infection
ependymal cell
(in CNS)
produce cerebrospinal fluid
line the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord
ependymal cells + nearby blood capillaries make the choroid plexus
cilia of ependymal cells help circulate the CSF
Schwann cell
form neurilemma around all PNS nerve fibers and myelin around most of them; aid in regeneration of damaged nerve fibers
satellite cells
surround somas of neurons in the ganglia; provide electrical insulation and regulate chemical environment of neurons (in PNS)
Why is whole milk recommended for babies?
myelination!
myelin is 80% lipid & 20% protein.
high lipid diet necessary for formation
unmyelinated axons in the PNS
associated with schwann cells, but no myelin sheath covers them
unmyelinated axons in the CNS
no association with oligodendrocytes
Guillian-Barre Syndrome (GBS)
autoimmune disease in which the body attacks Schwann cell membranes (PNS)
complete paralysis in a matter of days/weeks
go to ICU, 80-90% complete resolution
regeneration only occurs in the _____. ______ play an active role in regeneration.
PNS
Schwann cells
neurons at electrical synapses are joined by
gap junctions
at chemical synapses, the presynaptic neuron is separated from the postsynaptic neuron by:
a synaptic cleft
sensory (afferent) division
somatic sensory division
from muscles, glands, etc. to CNS
sensory (afferent) division
visceral sensory division
from organs to the CNS
motor (efferent) division
somatic motor division
carries signals from CNS to skeletal muscles
motor (efferent) division
visceral motor division (autonomic nervous system)
carries signals from CNS to glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle
ANS divisions
ANS = visceral motor division

sympathetic: arouses body for action

parasympathetic: calms body
resistance _______ when ion channels are open, and ______ when they are closed
increases when open
decreases when closed
the axon of the presynaptic neuron can synapse with ___________ of postsynaptic neuron
dendrites and cell body
neurotransmitter divisions
acetylcholine: (excitatory or inhibitory, CNS or PNS)
amino acids: GABA; primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain
monoamines: come from amino acids, are just modified..dopamine, norepinephrine..seratonin, histamine
neuropeptides: short-chain amino acids..ex: beta-endorphins, cholecystokinin
T or F? a single EPSP is capable of causing the postsynaptic neuron to reach action potential
False! EPSPs need to be added together (summation) to even think about getting to an action potential
anterograde transport
movement away from soma down the axon
retrograde transport
movement up the axon toward the soma
an excitable membrane (on the axon) is usually what charge on the inside & outside?
negative on the inside, positive on the outside.

reverses during action potential
current=
VOLTAGE/resistance
light nerve damage; how long for regeneration?
35 days
segment of neuron that receives signals from other neurons
receptive segment
what amino acid can cross the blood-brain barrier and is converted to seratonin in the brain?
tryptophan