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116 Cards in this Set

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behavior

the way in which an animal or person acts in response to a particular situation or stimulus

conditioned response

Pavlov's dogs; initiating a natural response with a stimulus, such as a sound of a bell

ethology

study of species' specific behavior where animals adapt to their natural environment

deprivation experiment

if newborn is raised without exposure to species; some specific behaviors are learned from parents, others are instinctive (i.e. spiders spin webs naturally)

imprinting

recognition of parent in offspring, has to develop during a critical period, usually within hours of being born

knock-out experiement

if a gene is associated with behavior is silenced or eliminated (i.e. mice depend on pheromones for mating, so if that is eliminated, they cannot discriminate between males or females)

interbreeding experiment

related species gave rise to behavior that is mixed

gene cascade

series of genes that direct behavior by affecting multiple areas of a behavior

cost/benefit

behavior's goal is to increase benefits and decrease costs -- energy spent in increase survival

social behavior

when behavior involves multiple individuals of the same species or even with different species (communication, dominance, territoriality, mating, parenting, helping, etc)

pheromones

smell hormones; hormones released that are sort of "smelled" by other individual

mechanosensory

touching, mechanical behavior like grooming, birds pecking, honey bee dance

birdsong

acoustic communication; testosterone is responsible for birdsong, so usually only males can sing to attract females who recognize their song

forager behavior

finding food, etc. and then instructing the rest of the population where to find it; i.e. dancing honey bees

migration

navigational behavior; moving population over long distances, usually to take advantage of moving from a harsh environment to a more hospitable one to support reproduction and survival

Circadian rhythm

internal clock (almost 24 hours); neurons regulate day/night activities such as cyclical alterations in metabolism, body temp, melatonin, etc.

Circannual rhythm

seasonal changes; change in day length, photoperiod, initiates a change in reproductive cycles, hibernation, etc.

navigational behavior

piloting/homing (recognizing landmarks, using the sun as compass, etc); migration over long distances

instinctive behavior

behavior that is genetic and that the individual is born with

fixed action pattern

behavior that is triggered by an external cue and performed to completion the same every time; must be genetically determined and done without learning at all

communicational behavior

holds group together, warning, social statues, finding food, etc; electrical or chemical signals, visual or auditory signs (birdsong, color of warning, scent, etc)

homeostasis

maintaining a stable condition in the internal environment

ECF (extra cellular fluid)

extracellular fluid, surrounds all cells of organism; mostly water; 20% in blood, 80% inbetween all cells

interstitial fluid

between the cells, surrounds cells

physiology

study of the function of specific anatomical regions

anatomy

study of the actual structure (anatomical) of regions

effector

muscles and glands that can react/produce an effect

nervous system

system of organs responsible for muscle function, sensory response, translating electrical/chemical signals in the body, sending messages to other organ systems; immediate responses

endocrine system

system of organs that regulate the body using chemical signals, hormones, through specific glands; changes the body over time for a long response

negative feedback

when homeostasis is off set point, and organ systems work in a negative way to correct the problem (i.e. sweating to bring the temperature back to normal, going against the heat)

positive feedback

response to homeostasis is in the positive direction; that is, the response is amplified or increased as opposed to working against (i.e. oxytocin is released during labor to INCREASE contractions to birth child)

feedforward information

set regulation point is changed; internal environment change is predicted before the change can even occur

tissues

a group of similar cells organized into a functional unit; four types = epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

organs

a body part composed of 4 tissues that serve a distinct function

connective tissue

connects all other three tissues together, protein fibers within matrix; collagen, elastin; fat, tendon, bone, cartilage, blood

muscle types

skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle

voluntary muscle

controlled by you; includes skeletal muscles for locomotion or facial expression

involuntary muscle

muscle that you cannot control; signals from the brain move the muscle for specific processes; in bladder, heart, gut, uterus, etc

glandular

organ systems

collection of organs that are specific to a region/process/etc; nervous, cardiovascular (circulatory and respiratory), digestive, reproductive, excretory endocrine

neuron

nerve cells; vary in size and shape but are excitable and transmit electrical signals ; consist of cell body and nucleus, dendrites, an axon, and axon terminal

glia

helper cells; not excitable; 10x more than nerve cells because they help eachother; oligodendrocytes/Schwann cells, astrocytes, microglia

electrical/chemical signals

electrical involves an action potential (change in charges of ECF and ICF); chemical involves neurotransmitter (usually ACh)

action potential

change in charge which travels down neuron and sends signal

dendrites

tree-like branches on the body of the neuron which pick up signals (post synaptic area)

axon; axon terminal

axon is the bridge-like portion of the neuron where the signal is transmitted and travels along (contains myelin); axon terminal is end portion with dendrites (re synaptic area) that travel to other neuron

synapse

space between the neuron and its target (muscle, gland, other neuron), i.e. the synaptic space

acetylocholine

neurotransmitter ACh, most common at neuromuscular junction; binds to receptors that depolarize the neuron to send the signal

myelin

layer wrapped around axon to increase speed and accuracy of signal transmission

depolarization

causes an action potential (change in charge)

spinal reflex

conversion of afferent to efferent information without involving higher brain centers; i.e. signals sent within spinal cord and not to brain, knee jerk reflex

gray matter

"gray" in appearance because so many cells are packed there, consists of neurons and glia cell bodies; center of spinal cord

white matter

surrounds gray matter; has only axons, NO NEURONS; appears white because of myelin sheaths

motor, sensory, interneuron

carry commands to muscles and glands (efferent), carry sensory info into nervous system and convert different stimuli (afferent), integrate and store info between the two (humans have the most of these)

afferent

carry sensory info into nervous system to convert different stimuli, i.e. light, sound, touch, into a signal

efferent

carry commands to muscles and glands, i.e. motor neurons

neurotransmitter

chemical that initiates a chemical or electrical response in a neuron cascade

excitatory

results in depolarization and a reaction that will "go"

inhibitory

results in hyperpolarization and causes a response to "not go" or stop

motor-end plate

a specialized region on the skeletal muscle (postsynaptic component)

CNS

central nervous system; includes the brain and spinal cord; responsible for all responses of the body by interpretting outside information

PNS

peripheral nervous system; sensory information from the outside that includes unconscious actions and autonomic responses (heart rate, sweating, etc)

hindbrain

includes the cerebellum and spinal cord; coordinates muscle activity and maintaining balance; receives info from peripheral body

midbrain

middle section of the brain

forebrain

diencephalon, which includes the thalamus and hypothalamus; in charge of the limbic system and pleasure/pain centers

medulla

part of brain stem with the pons and midbrain; swallowing, salivating and breathing are localized here; Reticular Activating System

pons

part of brain stem

cerebellum

part of hindbrain; single, convoluted surface; coordinates muscle activity and balance; receives info from peripheral system

cerebral cortex

gray matter of cerebrum (actual brain); connects the two halves of the brain together

reticular activating system

sensory information from the spinal cord into this network of sensory neurons that process a lot of info from the body that will help with staying awake or falling asleep

limbic system

surrounds hypothalamus; regulates basic drives such as hunger, thirst, instincts, long term memory (hippocampus) , and pleasure/pain/fear centers (amygdala`)

diencephalon

forebrain consisting of the thalamus and the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus

thalamus

station where sensory info from body stops before going onto the cerebral cortex

hypothalamus

receives info about the physiological condition of the body and maintains homeostasis; location of the limbic system

gyri, sulci

folds and grooves of the brain

hippocampus

associated with long term memory; part of the diencephalon

association cortex

part of frontal lobe that deals with personality, feeling, and planning

parietal lobe

somatosensory cortex; deals with the feeling/sensory information of specific body parts and associating what you are touching etc.

frontal lobe

front of brain; deals with personality and feeling; specific motor functions

temporal lobe

for processing auditory information as well as recognizing/naming objects, faces

occipital lobe

receives and processes visual information and translating it into language

learning

acquisition of skills and knowledge

memory

expression of what you've acquired

long term potentiation

memory is stored in bits and pieces all over the sensory association areas with visual, auditory, prefrontal areas of the brain

parasympathetic

part of PNS; preganglionic efferent neurons in brainstem and sacral spinal cord, uses acetylcholine, deals with slowing down heart beat and breathing; "rest and digest" idea

sympathetic

thoracic and lumbar spinal cords; uses noradrenaline; prepares body to deal with stress, increases heart rate, dilate eyes, more glucose; "fight or flight"

cervical/sacral

areas for parasympathetic system; pupils, intestines, urinary bladder, arousal

thoracic/lumbar

areas for sympathetic system; heartrate, breakdown of glucose, inhibits digestion and intestines

"fight or flight" response

response of the sympathetic nervous system where heart rate increased, more blood sugar, adrenaline, etc.

"rest and digest" response

part of parasympathetic nervous system where body relaxes, heart rate goes down, food is digested etc

retina, fovea

back of eye with a layer of photoreceptors and the center of the visual field

pupil

opening in center of iris that absorbs light for imaging forming

lens

refracts and focuses light using suspensory ligaments

ciliary body and suspensory ligaments

help with image forming and amount of light

rods, cones

photoreceptor cells that respond to light (black and white) to form shape and identification in darkness, and high acuity (color) to fully see

ganglion cell

have axons that help with visualization

optic nerve, blind spot

built of axons from ganglionic cells; since there are no photoreceptors, there is no image or light absorbed at this particular part of the eye; "blind spot"

vitreous humor

behind the iris; jelly like support

pre/post ganglionic

organization/collection of neurons in the PNS

noranrenergic

postganglionic neurotransmitter = nor-adrenaline

endocrine

system of organs that release hormones/chemical signals that influence the growth/development of the body

hormones

chemical signals produced by different organs for regulation homeostasis; produced by endocrine glands and released into circulating blood

steroid hormones

lipid soluble, easily diffusible through cell membranes as receptors are inside or on the nucelus; binds to DNA to turn on genes, i.e. estrogen, testosterone = sex hormones

peptide hormones

packaged as vesicles and released by exocytosis b/c receptors are on cell surface; i.e. insulin (protein hormones)

paracrine

hormone that affects neighboring cells

autocrine

hormone that affects the same cell that it produces; i.e. reproductive system

anterior pituitary

front of pituitary that is responsible for production and release of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) , adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)

posterior pituitary

back of pituitary; responsible for storage of ADH and oxytocin

tropic hormones

released to effect other endocrine glands

releasing hormones

released from hypothalamus that controls the anterior pituitary hormones

inhibiting hormones

helps control anterior pituitary hormones

enkephalin, endorphin

found in anterior pituitary; opiates for pain control; body makes your own drugs

oxytocin

stored in the posterior pituitary; targets uterine muscle/contractions during childbirth, assists milk letdown; increases with intimate sexual contact = "cuddle hormone"

portal vessels

help bridge gap between hypothalamus and anterior pituitary so that it does not have to circulate through the entire body

negative/positive feedback

initiates release or stops production of hormone

neuroendocrine

hormones that also double as neurotransmitters and help with the nervous system; i.e. epinephrine and norepinephrine are hormones that initiate or inhibit the "fight or flight" response