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75 Cards in this Set

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What is the difference between plasma and formed elements?

Plasma is fluid, formed elements are cells and cell parts.

What is the function of erythrocytes?

Carry oxygen

What is the function of leukocytes?

Defend against pathogens

What is the function of platelets?

Hemostasis

Which leukocytes are agranular?

Monocytes and lymphocytes

Which leukocytes are granular?

Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

What is the function of neutrophils?

Phagocytize small particles

What is the function of eosinophils?

Attack parasites

What is the function of basophils?

Produce histamine

What is the function of monocytes?

Phagocytize large particles

What is the function of lymphocytes?

Immune defense

What are the three proteins found in plasma and their functions?

Albumin- hemostatic pressure


Globulin- antibodies


Fibrinogen- hemostasis

Define hematocrit

Percentage of blood composed of red blood cells

Define diapedesis

Outward passage of blood cells through intact vessel walls

Define hematopoiesis

Blood cell production

Define polycythemia

Elevated amount of red blood cells

Define anemia

Lowered amount of red blood cells

Define hemostasis

Stoppage of bleeding

What is the function of red bone marrow and where is it located?

Produces blood cells; Located in the bone ends

What is the function of yellow bone marrow and where it is located?

Stores fat; Located in the bone shaft

What items are transported in plasma?

Oxygen, carbon dioxide, amino acids, urea, uric acid, electrolytes, monosaccharides, nucleotides

How does hemostasis happen?

Blood vessel spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation

What is the function of hemoglobin?

Carries oxygen

Describe the location of the heart

In the thoracic cavity; between the lungs; in the ribcage; in front of the vertebrae

Name the two pericardial membranes and their functions

Visceral (epicardium)- lines heart


Parietal- lines pericardial cavity

What are the three layers of the heart?

Epicardium- outermost


Myocardium- muscle


Endocardium- innermost

Describe the flow of blood through the cardiovascular system starting with the right atrium

Right atrium; Right AV valve; Right ventricle; Pulmonary valve; Pulmonary trunk; Pulmonary arteries; Lungs; Pulmonary veins; Left atrium; Left AV valve; Left ventricle; Aortic valve; Aorta; Systemic arteries; Systemic veins; Venae cavae

Coronary arteries

What are the components of intrinsic conduction in the heart?

Sinoatrial node- generates impulses for heartbeat


Atrioventricular node


Bundle of His


Purkinje fibers- stimulate contraction of papillary muscles at the same time the ventricles contract


Atrioventricular node


Bundle branches

Describe the parts of an EKG/ECG

P wave- atrial depolarization


QRS complex- atrial repolarization/ ventricular depolarization


T wave- ventricular depolarization

Describe the functions of arteries, veins, and capillaries?

Arteries- carry blood away from the heart


Veins- carry blood towards the heart


Capillaries- where exchange occurs

What are the three layers of the artery wall?

Tunica externa


Tunica media


Tunica intima

What is the purpose of precapillary sphincters?

Regulate the flow of blood into the capillaries

What is systole?

Ventricular contraction

What is diastole?

Ventricular relaxation

What factors affect blood pressure?

Emotional state, exercise, temperature

What is the difference between lymphatic and circulatory capillaries?

What anatomical adaptations enable lymphatic capillaries to absorb tissue fluid?

Describe the anatomy of lymphatic collecting vessels.

Thinner walls than cardiac vessels; same three layers; semilunar valves on the inside

What are the major lymphatic trunks?

Where does lymphatic fluid return to the circulatory system?

Lymphatic capillaries

Describe the anatomy of a lymph node

Capsule- encases the lymph node


Hilum- indentation


Afferent lymphatic vessels- attach opposite the hilum


Efferent lymphatic vessels- emerge from the hilum


Trabeculae and reticular fibers- walls within the lymph node


Medulla- area of less tightly packed immune cells

What is the function of afferent lymphatic vessels?

Carry lymph into the lymph node

What is the function of efferent lymphatic vessels?

Carry lymph away from the lymph node

What is the function of lymph nodes?

Filters pathogens and other particles from the lymph

Describe the anatomy of the spleen

Red pulp- purifying blood and removing old blood cells


White pulp- produces immune and blood cells

Describe the location, function, and anatomy of the thymus

Located behind sternum between the lungs; trains T lymphocytes; has two thymic lobes

What is the difference between nonspecific/ innate immune responses and specific/ adaptive immune responses?

Nonspecific are general defenses present at birth. Specific target certain pathogens and are acquired after exposure to a particular pathogen.

How do skin and mucous membranes defend against infection?

They prevent pathogens from entering the body

How does gastric juice defend against pathogens?

It is acidic and dissolves pathogens

How does lysozyme defend against pathogens?

It breaks down the cell wall of bacteria

How do interferons defend against pathogens?

Produced by infected cells to warn nearby cells

How does inflammation happen and how does it defend the body?

Blood vessels dilate, edema brings extra fluid to the area, fibrinogen seals the area




It seals in an infection and brings more WBCs to fight the infection

What is margination?

Accumulation and adhesion of leukocytes to the epithelial cells of blood vessel walls at the site of injury

What is chemotaxis?

Attraction of leukocytes to the site of an infection

What is phagocytosis?

Consumption of cells and particles by monocytes and neutrophils

What is opsonization?

Process by which a pathogen is marked for ingestion and eliminated by a phagocyte

What are pyrogens?

Substances that produce a rise in temperature

How does the complement system work?

Specialized proteins circulate in the blood that activate an enzyme cascade when they see a particular pathogen

How does a fever help defense and how does it occur?

Fever makes it difficult for pathogens to reproduce.



They are produced by increased burning of calories or slowing blood flow to extremities where more heat is lost

How does the specific immune system differentiate between self and foreign cells?

Antibodies detect certain antigens that are on foreign cells

What is the difference between T-cells and B-cells?

T-cells attack pathogens directly while B-cells produce antibodies.

What are the organs of the respiratory system?

Nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs

What is the function of the respiratory system?

Bring in oxygen to the blood and release carbon dioxide

What is the difference between external and internal respiration?

External respiration occurs between the lungs and the capillaries while internal respiration occurs between the capillaries and the body cells

What is the function of nasal passages?

It brings air into the respiratory system

What is the function of the epiglottis?

It prevents food and Water from entering the lower respiratory tract

What is the structure of the bronchial tube system?

The bronchial tree branches into two bronchia, which branch into secondary and tertiary bronchia, which branch into bronchioles

What is the function of alveoli?

This is where external respiration occurs

How do muscles aid in respiration?

The diaphragm expands the thoracic cavity which reduces pressure and draws in air

What is compliance?

The ability of the lung to expand

What is tidal volume?

The amount of air exchanged during respiration

What is vital capacity?

Maximum amount of air a person can expel

What is residual volume?

The amount of air left in the lungs after expiration to keep them from collapsing

What is the difference between conducting and respiratory zones?

The conducting zone is a series of tubes that filters air and conducts it to the lungs. The respiratory zone is the site of gas exchange.