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60 Cards in this Set

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Karl Klueless tries to feed steak to his 4-month-ld daughter Karrie in order to get her to grow teeth. "Baby food and formula are costing me a fortune," says Karl. His wife Kathy tells him that feeding Karrie steak will not cause her teeth to come in faster. "Her teeth will appear when they are ready," she tells Karl. Obviously Kathy understands the concept of
The developmental theory that notes that behaviors are biologically built into human beings and that those behaviors, skills, dispositions (and sometimes knowledge) are developed and displayed over time is known as
The developmental theory that proposes that the behaviors, knowledge and ways of thinking that human beings display are internalized from experiences with others and values and priorities of the culture is known as
Socio-cultural theory
The developmental theory that focuses on the aspects of memory and specific cognitive processes and notes the changes in the capacities of these areas of cognition over time is known as
Information Processing Theory
Three-year-old Abby calls every animal she sees a "doggie." One day she pets a cat and calls it a "doggie." Her Mom says, "No Abby, that is a kitty." After this Abby is able to correctly identify and differentiate between "doggies" and "kitties." In Paiget's cognitive development theory Abby demonstrates
In Piaget's cognitive development theory, an organized group of similar actions or thoughts that are used repeatedly in responding to the environment are known as
To Piaget, the mental state that motivates people to learn due to an inability to explain new events through one's existing schemes is know as
Pam Pedagogy helps her students understand complicated cognitive tasks by breaking them down into smaller subtasks, asks guided questions to help them think about the task in a certain way and (at times) demonstrating parts of the task for her students to imitate. Pam's actions are consistent with the concept of
Four-year-old Andrew hears his grandma say that she would just like to "squeeze the pudding" out of his new baby sister. Later Andrew asks his Mom why babies have pudding inside them. Piaget would explain Andrew's confusion as typical of what stage of cognitive development?
Polly Procrastinator, Cedarville senior and still undeclared major, is talking to her friends at Chuck's. "I found myself thinking about my future and then I began to think about why I was thinking about my future, which caused me to think about how I can think about my future...." Piaget would say that Polly was operating in which stage of cognitive development?
Formal Operations
The range of tasks that a person can perform with the help and guidance of others but cannot yet perform independently is known in conitive development theory (specifically Vygotsky's) as
Zone of Proximal Development
Polly Pragmatic is never satisfied with knowing "about" something but actively looks for ways to apply what she has learned. "What's the point of learning it if you can't use it," is her motto. Polly demonstrates what Sternberg would call _____________ intelligence.
The theory of multiple intelligences that propose eight different types of intelligences (including musical, bodily-kinesthetic, and spatial intelligences) is associated with
Howard Gardner
Robert Sternberg developed a new way of viewing intelligence that discovered how people were successful in the world and how such a view if intelligence could be tested. Sternberg would note that according to his theory, he exhibits _____________ intelligence.
The typically automatic way that learner tends to think about a task and process new info (e.g., analytic versus holistic) is often identified as
Cognitive Disposition
The ability to relate new info to pre-existing knowledge or schemes that the learner has, which allows for a more efficient processing of info is known as
Meaningful Learning
All of the following are characteristics of expert thinking (as compared to novices) in their area of expertise except
Possess faster cognitive style
All of the following components are generally associated with the concept of "intelligence" by psychologists except
Possess greater amounts of info
The occasionally use abstract/hypothetical thinking, greater flexibility with concepts such as conservation and can understand and perform simple fraction problems in math are typical of student in which grade levels?
Grades 3-5
The emerging ability to thi8nk abstractly, hypothetically, and idealistically in areas such as math, science, or the interpretation of literature is typical of students in which grade levels?
Grades 9-12
Donny Drillsergeant, retired Marine officer, runs his house like military base. "When I set a rule I expect my kids to obey and not to question my authority." Donny's parenting style can be characterized as
The belief, typical of many young adolescents, in that they think they are the center of attention in any social situation is generally known as
Imaginary Audience
The ability to think about how other people are likely to think, act and react is known by psychologists as
Social Cognition
Vonnie Volcano is usually quite passive. Yet, when provoked, he will retaliate with uncharacteristic anger and physically attack others. "They just make me so mad," he explains. Vonnie's behavior is an example of
Reactive Aggression
Children or young adults who tend to engage in physical or verbal aggression, either directly of indirectly, are often said to suffer from
Externalizing Disorders
Young people who seem to successfully adapt, cope and sometimes even flourish socially and academically despite stress and tension associated with family or community are generally exhibit
Gary Goodchild discusses his future college plans. "All the guess work has been gtaken out of college and my future. Mom and Dad are Cedarville graduates, bought a pre-paid college program to send mt to school and want me to be a dentist to take over the family practice. So much for my dreams of being a poet." In terms of identify formation Gary's situation is characteristic of
The descriptive term used for the assessments we hold of ourselves in specific areas such academics, social areas, sports, etc. is known as
Sammy Speedmerchant drives 85MPH on Route 42 between Cedarville and Xenia. "You are breaking the law by speeding" says his girlfriend. "It's only illegal if you get caught," retorts Sammy, Kohlberg would say that Sammy displays _____________ moral reasoning.
Peter Puredoctrine states, "The Bible says it, I believe it, and that settles it." Peter declaration would indicate what state of moral reasonging?
Twenty-one year old Carmen Chameleon has yet to pick a major in college, has no strong religion on political affiliations and (much like a middle schooler) tries on different roles constantly. "I fancied myself a poet for a while, than a tri-athlete, currently I want to be an intellectual." In terms of identity development Carmen appears to typify
Identity diffusion
Peer relationships contribute to social development in ways that adult-child relationship cannot. All of the following are positive facts of peer relationships except
Provide support in the construction of one's personal fable
Boys and girls tend to socially interact in different ways. All of the following are typical characteristics of male social interactions except
Maintain closer personal space
In the social network of school, those students who peers have either strong positive feeling about and who also elicit strong negative feelings from others are characterized as ____________ students.
All of the following are factors associated with students considered "at-risk" of not finishing school except
No identifiable peer group
All of the following are basic warning signs that student may be contemplating suicide except
Over aggressive behavior with adults or peers
The period of identify development where students develop an excessive belief in their own uniqueness, heighten sense of what others may think of them and (typically) a decline in self-esteem generally occurs in grades
The period where students generally are limited to concrete self-descriptions and have tendency to overestimate their abilities and changes of future success is associated with grades
The ability to take the perspective of others is a critical part of social development. During what grades do teachers generally note that students focus on their own feelings (rather than others) but begin to realize that others can hide their feelings and also can interpret social events differently?
In terms of social development, the grades where students begin to exhibit a greater interest in the thoughts of others and recognize that others (like themselves) can have multiple and confliction motives?
The personal explanation that we give ourselves (not necessarily what we tell others) to explain our successes and failures are known as-
I use to lose my car keys all the time, so I places a bowl of peanut M&Ms where I wanted my car keys to be. When I came home I would place my keys in the spot and take a handful of candy. There is no longer a bowl of candy at my house but I still place my keys in the same spot because I find it rewarding that I can find my keys when I want them. The reason for my current behavior can be explained as an example of-
Intrinsic Motivation
Molly Mathphobic hates math and does not think she is very good at it. In order to avoid looking bad in front of her friends she simply does not do her math. "I could do better but I just don't want to work that hard," she tells her friends. Molly's behavior is an example of-
Performance-avoidance Orientation
Polly Perfect loves school and always seems to work hard regardless of the grades she gets. She is curious, persistent, loves challenges and never avoids difficult tasks. Polly's approach to school demonstrates a-
Mastery-goal Orientation
Gary Gradegrubber only works on assignments that will be graded, avoid difficult or challenging tasks, constantly is concerned about making sure he gives that teacher "what she want." Gary's orientation to learning can be described as-
Performance-approach Orientation
In college I had to take the Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche to complete my degree. I did not want to take the course but the university made it a requirement, and the instructor was able to convince me of the importance of the class based on the influence of Nietzsche as a philosopher. By the end of the course I began to enjoy studying the topic. My motivation and behavior would be an example of
Internalized Motivation
The belief that a personal trait is stable and fixed, so that success or failure on a task that requires that trait is almost seen as inevitable is called
Entity Orientation
The belief that a personal trait is malleable and susceptible to change through personal effort and determination is called
Incremental Orientation
Try as we might we cannot get my son Jonathan to mow the yard for the joy of how it looks when complete or the smell of fresh cut grass. "Heck no, I will only do it if you pay me," is his standard line. Since money generally does the trick Jonathan's motivation would be considered
Extrinsic Motivation
The belief that a person has that they have the capability in terms of traits or behaviors to accomplish goals is known as
Nine-year-old Franky Feeble doesn't believe he can do many of the things other boys can. "I don't think I can Mom, can you help me," is his standard line. Frustrated, his Mom often will do things for him. Franky's behavior is consistent with what is called
Learned Helplessness
Eyore (of Winnie the Pooh fame) laments over his lack of success. "I knew this would happen. It never works for me. Why even bother to try?" Eyore's attitude (and apparent lack of success) can be an example of
Self-fulfilling Prophecy
All of the following factors of motivation have the effect of enhancing performance except
In attribution theory all of the following factors influence future performance except
Decline in the need for arousal and competence
Theory of motivation that notes that human behavior is typically goal0directed and that human beings are motivated to develop a sense of self-efficacy and believe they are capable of performing important or desired tasks.
Social Cognitive Theory
Theory of motivation that states that people desire to grow psychologically and strive and develop their full potential. These goals can be achieved in an environment that is caring and supportive.
Theory of motivation that states that behavior is the result of drives and that the consequences of behavior either fulfill (and will be repeated) or thwart (and thus are avoided) the realization of those drives.
Theory of motivation that states that the learners explanations for past success or failure will have an impact on their motivation to engage in future actions.
Attribution Theory
The motivational characteristics of students at these grade levels include an increased interest in "gender appropriate" activities, a noticeable decline in intrinsic motivation for academic tasks, and an increased interest in social goals.
The motivation characteristics of students in these grades include an increased prevalence on performance goals, increase use of cheating to accomplish these goals, and yet an increased motivation to integrate interests, values and behaviors with an overall sense of self.