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58 Cards in this Set

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Rita Rewards gives points to her students for good grades, jobs completed in class, and doing kind deeds to peers. At the end of the week students can redeem the points as her classroom store, where they can choose from a number of different prizes. Rita's reward strategy is an example of
Token Economy
The types of reinforcers typically used in classrooms, such as stickers, praise, and extra recess time are examples of
Secondary Reinforcement
Five-year-old Sam is fascinated with Batman. He has Batman shoes, bedding, shirts and when he plays with friends he always wants to be the Caped Crusader. When asked what he wants to be when he grows up he replies, "Batman" (even if Batman doesn't really exist). It is obvious that Sam sees Batman as
Symbolic Model
While all people can serve as models, some people are more influential as models than others. All of the following are variables that generally make people more influential models except
Age and wisdom
Sonja Sly has a classroom full of "talkers." Tired of trying to deal with their constant talking she initiate "silent reading time" and gives students rewards for how well they engage in silent reading. This has reduced the instances of talking in class. Sonja is using a technique known as
Reinforcing Incompatible Behavior
Larry Larceny, local Cedarville scofflaw, distills moonshine in the otherwise "dry" town. Arrested and convicted he is sentenced by Mayor Phipps to 6 months in the Cedarville jail (Losing his precious freedom). "Don't do the crime if you can't do the time," says the Mayor as he locks Larry away. Larry's sentence would be an example of
Removal Punishment
The type of learning that occurs when a response increases in frequency as a result of being followed by some reinforcement is called
Operant Conditioning
Molly Messy refuses to clear her room. Her mother says, "If you clean your room to my standards we can take a trip to Young's for ice cream." Assuming Molly likes Young's ice cream (and who doesn't), her mother's offer is an example
Positive Reinforcement
Gary Coodcoach is careful to train his athletes for success. I make sure if give the small task that they can accomplish and praise them until eventually they are able to do the task that I want them to do. Cary's technique would be known to behaviorists as
Fanny Friendly is able to gain attention from all the guys. "What is your secret" asks her friends. "It's simple, when guys look at me I smile, wink, or even blow them a kiss--it always seems to get their attention." Fanny's flirts serve as what type of reinforcement for unsuspecting males?
Social Reinforcement
When I get into my car and turn the ignition, if I have not buckled my seatbelt the car will give off an irritating buzzing. This buzzing will continue until I buckle up (which is the very reason the buzzing is there). The buzzing of the car serves as a
Negative Reinforcement
Modeling to students can be an effective way of teaching, however, certain factors must be kept in mind for it to be effective. All of the following are variables to effective modeling except
Gender Appropriateness--ensuring the task is relevant to the gender of the student
All of the following factors have been shown to have a negative impact on the academic achievement of students from lower socio-economic (SES) backgrounds except
Single Parent families
Ronnie Rambunctious is constantly wandering around the classroom. In order to get him to finish his class work the teacher offers him extra recess time if he can stay focus and complete it. This generally has the effect of getting Ronnie to complete his work. The extra recess is an example of what type of positive reinforcement?
Activity Reinforcement
Donna Driven is having trouble learning calculus. She approaches her teacher for extra help and the tutoring helps Donna master concepts she is struggling to get. Since the tutoring was helpful Donna finds it reinforcing. The tutoring would be an example of what type of positive reinforcement?
Positive Feedback
The sense of confusion or disconnect between the attitudes and values reinforced at home and those that are valued and reinforced at school (when they differ) is known as
Cultural Mismatch
"When everyone has the area clean around their desk like little Martha Stewart we can all go to lunch," announces the teacher. Quickly all the first graders start to clean their areas to be like Martha. In this case Martha serves as
Live Model
Bonnie Buckeye is buck-nuts over Ohio State football. "I am glued to the tube every Saturday," she tells her friends. "When WE win I just get feeling the resst of the week" (Only to be crushed in National Championship games). Ohio State football sserves what function in Bonnie's life?
Vicarious Reinforcement
My wife Tersea loves to run. She tells her friends that the reason she does it is that it makes her feel better, relieves stress and that she can get outdoors and enjoy nature. Because these factors increase the likelihood that she will continue to run the act of running it is an example of
Intrinsic Reinforcement
"Your wife loves to run," responds Larry Lethargy, "the only reason I even move away from my PS-2 is so I can get a good grade in PACL. If it wasn't for the grade I wouldn't run at all." For Larry the fact that the grade increases the likelihood that he will run means that the grade is an example of
Extrinsic Reinforcement
The part of the human memory that is considered the repository of all information that we store and do not need to be conscious of is known labeled by information-processing psychologists as
Long-term Memory
When ordering a pizza Gary Glutton looks up the number and then repeats it over and over in order to remember it until he dials. His strategy for processing the phone number is called
The area of human memory where all active and conscious processing occurs and where assembly and construction of information takes places is called
Working Memory
Parry performance is preparing for her US History exam. Her father quizzes her and asks her the significance of some of the events she is learning. "Dad-I don't have to know anything about this stuff-I just need to remember if for the test." Patty's type of learning can best be described as
Rote Learning
The part of human memory that holds information for a brief period of time (1-2 seconds) prior to active processing known as
Sensory Register
Granny Goodenough sits and watches TV while knitting a new sweater for granddaughter Gracie. "How can you knit and watch TV?" asks Gracie. "I am not sure child--I just don't have to think about it." Granny's knitting ability can be explained by--
Learning theory that focuses on how human beings create (rather than absorb) knowledge from their observations and experiences and that people attempt to create theories or integrated bodies of knowledge to allow them to explain the world.
Theory of learning that focuses on how human beings learn from observing others. Focuses on the role of modeling, motivations related to self-efficacy and the process whereby people learn to self-regulate their own behavior.
Social Learning Theory
Learning strategies for students at this grade level show a continued reliance on rehearsal but also an increased use of elaboration and organization as a means to make sense of new information.
Grades 9-12
Students at this grade level tend to be spontaneous, intentional and are more able to use rehearsal as an effective strategy. They also demonstrate the increased use of organization and can effectively use visual imagery to process information.
Grades 3-5
Mikey Minutia prides himself on his trivial Pursuit prowess. He is a veritable storehouse of names, dates, places, events (as well as a few concepts and theories). Mikey's vast knowledge can best be described as
Declarative Knowledge
As a general strategy, Dr. Baumann will often ask you to share one or two things that you learned from the previous class as a way of getting the class started. This strategy can best be described as--
Prior Knowledge Activation
At my wife's family reunion all the older folks sit around and reminisce about prior reunions. Uncle George suddenly confronts Grandpa Homer on his recollection of an event. "that ain't the way I remember it," he says. "Well that's the way it happened," replies Homer. The conflicting recollections of the same events can be explained via the concept of--
Reconstruction Error
Ronda Raffle receives a phone call from the Regis and Kelly morning show. "Answer this question in 30 seconds and you win a trip to Tahiti," she is told. Upon hearing the question she thinks she knows the answer. "It's on the tip of my tongue," she tells Regis, yet is unable to recall the answer. Ronda's rotten recall can best be attributed to
Retrieval Failure
Gerald Geometry, famed high school math teacher, is keen on making sure that his students can perform all the functions of mathematics he teachers. "It's all about practice and making sure students gains the skills of math." Obviously Gerald is a proponent of--
Procedural Knowledge
In his parables Jesus often referred to common events that the people would have known to teach them new concepts. For example, Jesus will often make reference to the idea that "The kingdom of heaven is like..." Jesus' attaching new teaching to prior knowledge His listeners had is an example of--
Meaningful Learning
In his World History class Arnie Antiquity is reading about the reign of Henry the 8th. He read about how he had his marriages annulled and divorced (or worst)wives that did not bear him a son. "Henry must have wanted a male heir for the throne," Arnie surmises. Arnie's summation serves as an example of--
All of the following are major forms that in which meaningful learning can occur except--
Kinesthetic Motion
All of the following factors can help explain why students do not always recall the things they learned in class except--
Insufficient long-term memory in which to store information
All of the following are critical factors that teachers should keep in mind about human memory when planning lessons except
Ensuring a proper balance between declarative and procedural information
The type of thinking characterized by drawing information together and applying it in a logical fashion to solve a problem is called--
Convergent Thinking
The type of thinking whereby a person can develop flexible and fluid ways to view knowledge of solve a problem in known as--
Divergent Thinking
In high school my baseball coach use to tell us that we were not allowed to play softball or golf during the season for fear that it would ruin our baseball swing. My coach was worried about which of the following phenomenon--
Negative Transfer
Roger Ramjet, famed Air Force pilot, is learning to fly the F-22 Raptor. "Flying this no problem," he tells the squadron commander, "It is just like the F-15 fighters I have been flying for year." Righty or wrongly Roger is basing his assessment on--
Positive Transfer
The knowledge that a person has of their own mental processes as well as engaging is strategies to enhance learning is known as--
Danny Gooddad is spending a long Christmas Eve putting together his kid's toys so they will be ready in the morning. "All I have to do is following the instructions and I should be fine" he thinks to himself. Danny's belief is based in the idea that the instructions are an example of--
Kyle Kareless is getting ready to take his Education Psychology quiz without studying (not a good idea). "How can you take the quiz without studying" asks Konnie? "I will just use my normal strategy--when in doubt choose 'B'" he says. Kyle (not very effective) strategy would be an example of--
All of the following cognitive processes are associated with self-regulation in learners except-
Sonja Sanskrit learned to take notes in her 7th grade Language Arts class. "I have been able to take that skills and adapt to other classes, even things like math," she tells her friends. Sonja's note-taking skill would serve as an example of--
General Transfer
Melrose Place Middle School is keen on the use of block scheduling with its students. "We find that linking together subjects such as science and math or social studies and literature enhances student learning by taking advantage of the overlap of the content," explains the principal. Melrose Place is seeking to take advantage of __________ to enhance student learning.
Specific Transfer
The ability to evaluate the accuracy and worthiness of information or a line of reasoning is known as-
Critical Thinking
The use of existing knowledge or skills to address a situation or answer a question is called-
The metacognitive characteristics of students at this level includes a belief that knowledge of a topic is largely a collection of facts, use few (and relatively ineffective) study strategies, although are developing an understanding that conflicting perspective can have some validity.
Grades 6-8
The metacognitive characteristics of student at this level include an overestimation of what they have learned and can remeber in the future, that learning is a relatively passive activity, but have a growing awareness of their own thought processes.
Grades K-2
The characteristics of self-regulation in learners at this level include an increases ability to plan future actions, increase capacity for abstract reasoning and a growing tendency to use self-motivating strategies to make things enjoyable or to focus on the importance of what is being learned.
Grades 6-8
The characteristics of self-regulation in learners at this level include an increased ability to assess their own performance and progress as well as the development of guilt or shame for poor performance (and satisfaction for good performance). There is also a marked increase in the ability to do tasks (albeit short ones) independently.
Grades 3-5
Geneva Genuine prefers to focus instruction on activities that students might encounter in the real world. "We work on making a budget, balancing a checkbook, how to calculate taxes and other real world skills," gloats Geneva. Her approach to instruction can best be characterized as--
Authentic Activities
Bob the Builder, noted shop teacher, tells about his teaching method. "I have students build a house. They have to buy land, design it and sell it. In the process they learn science, mathematics, social studies (e.g., zoning and environmental impact laws) and even some language arts. I find the process is very motivating and helps students effective learn." Bob's approach to learning can best if characterized as-
Project-Based Learning