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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
stimulus that increases the likelihood that a particular response will follow
Antecedent stimulus
Form of learning in which a response increases in frequency as a result of its being followed by reinforcement.
Operant Conditioning
Consequence of a response that leads to increased frequency of the response.
Consequence that satisfies a biologically built-in need.
Primary reinforcer
Consequence that becomes reinforcing over time through its association with another reinforcer.
Secondary reinforcer
Phenomenon in which a response increases as a result of the presentation (rather than removal) of a stimulus.
Positive reinforcement
Reinforcer that comes from the outside environment, rather than from within the learner.
Extrinsic Reinforcer
Reinforcer provided by oneself of inherent in a task being performed.
Intrinsic reinforcer
Phenomenon in which a response increases as a result of the removal (rather than presentation) of a stimulus.
Negative Reinforcement
Consequence that decreases the frequency of the response it follows
Punishment involving presentation of a new stimulus, presumable one a learner finds unpleasant.
Presentation punishment
Punishment involving removal of an existing stimulus, presumably one a learner finds desirable and doesn't want to lose.
Removal Punishment
Person who demonstrates a behavior for someone else.
Individual whose behavior is directly observed in one's immediate environment
Live model
Real or fictional character portrayed in the media that influences an observer's behavior.
Symbolic Model
Phenomenon in which a response increases in frequency when another (observed) person is reinforced for that response.
Vicarious Reinforcement
Phenomenon in which a response decreases in frequency when another (observed) person is punished for that response.
Vicarious Punishment
Concept, symbol, strategy, procedure, or other culturally constructed mechanism that helps people think about and respond to situations more effectively.
Cognitive tool
Process of molding a child's behavior and beliefs to be appropriate for the cultural group.
Sense of confusion when a student encounters a culture with behavioral expectations very different from those previously learned.
Culture Shock
Situation in which a child's home culture and the school culture hold conflicting expectations for the child's behavior.
Cultural mismatch
Mutual cause-and-effect relationships among environment, behavior, and personal variables as these three factors influence learning and development.
Reciprocal Causation
Gradual disappearance of an acquired response; in the case of a response acquired through operant conditioning, it results from repeated lack of reinforcement for the response.
Classroom strategy in which desired behaviors are reinforced by tokens that the learner can use to "purchase" a variety of other, backup, reinforcers.
Token Economy
Situation in which one event happens only after another even has already occurred.
Two or more behaviors that cannot be performed simultaneously.
Incompatible Behavior
Process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations to a desired behavior.
What are the four general forms that primary reinforcers can take?
Food, water, sources of warmth, and oxygen
Preference for small, immediate rewards over larger, delayed ones; concrete reinforcers, teacher approval, privileges, grown-up responsibilities
Effective Reinforcers for K-2
Increasing ability to delay gratification ; concrete reinforcers, teacher approval and positive feedback, good citizen certificates, free time
Effective Reinforcers for 3-5
Increasing desire to have social time with peers; free time with friends, acceptance and approval from peers, teacher approval and support, specific positive feedback about academic performance
Effective Reinforcers for 6-8
Increasing ability to postpone immediate pleasures in order to gain long-term rewards; concern about getting good grades; opportunities to interact with friends, specific positive feedback about academic performance, public recognition for group performance positions of responsibility
Effective Reinforcers for 9-12
Response increases when a new stimulus
Positive Reinforcement
Response increases when a previously existing stimulus is removed
Negative Reinforcement
Response decreases when a new stimulus is presented
Presentation Punishment
Response decreases when a previously existing stimulus is removed
Removal Punishment