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42 Cards in this Set

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Stimulus that elicits a particular response without prior learning.

Conditioned stimulus

Response that is elicited by a particular (unconditioned) stimulis withour prior learning.

Unconditioned response


Phenomenon in which a person learns a response to a particular stimulus and them makes the same response to a similar stimulus; in classical conditioning, involves making a conditioned response to a stimulus similar to a conditioned response.

Generalization

Gradual disappearance of an acquired response; on classical conditioning, results from trpeated presentation of a conditioned stimullus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus.

Extinction

Specific object or event that influences an individual's learning or behavior.

Stimulus

Specific behavior that an individual exhibits.

Response

Phenomenon in which learners do less-preferred actibities in order to engages in more-preferred activities.

Premack Principle

Use of verbal ornonverbal signal to indicate that a cerain behavior is desired or that a certain behavior should stop.

Cueing

Approach to conflict resolution in which a student (serving as a mediator) asks peers in conflict to express their differing viewpoints and then work together to devise a reasonable resolution.

Peer mediation

Inner state that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior.

Motivation

General, fairly pervasive belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no ontrol of the environment.

Learned helplessness

Situation in which expectations for an outsome either directly or indirectly lead to the expectedd result.

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Feelings, emotions, and moods that a learner btings to bear on a task.

Affect

Approach to instructional planning in which a teacher first determines the desired end results. (i.e. the knowledge and skills students should require,) then identifies appropriate assessments, and finally determines appropriate instructional strategies.

Backward design

Classroom activity similar to an activity that students are apt to encounter in the outside world.

Authentic activity

Practice of individualizing instructional methods- and possibly also individualizing specific content and instructional goals-to align with each student's existing knowledge, skills, and needs.

Differentiated instruction

Situation of event (often unplanned) in which students might be expecially predisposed to acquire particular knowledge or skills.

Teachable moment

Approach to instruction in which information is presented in essentially the same form in which students are expected to learn it.

Expository instruction

Approach to instruction that uses a variety of techniques (e.g. explanations, questions, guided and independent practice) in a fairly structured manner to promote learning of fundamental knowledge and skills.

Direct instruction

Approach to instruction in which students learn on topic thoroughly before moving to a subsequent one.

Mastery learning

Approach to instruction in which students contruct their own knowledge about a topic through firsthand interaction with an aspect of their environment.

Discovery learning

Approach to instruction in which students apply complex reasoning skills in their examination and interpretation of new phenomena and data sources.

Inquiry learning

Self-constructed casual explanation for a personally experienced or observed event, sich as one's own or another person's success or failure.

Attribution

Process of setting goals for oneself and engaging in behaviors and cognitive processes that lead to goal attainment.

Self-regulation

Hoped-for, but not guarantee, future consequence of behavior.

Incentive

Real or fictional individual who demonstrated a behavior that learners might emulate; alternatively, a set of instructions for successfully executing the behavior.

Model

Inappropriate punishments

-Physical ;unishment


-Psychological punishment (threatens self-worth)


-Extra class work


-Out of school suspension

Appropriate punishment

-Verbal reprimand


-Response cost (lose points, erase RECESS)


-Logical consequences (seat change)


-Positive practice overcorrecction (do-over)


-Time out


-In school suspension

Characteristics of Social Cognitive Theory

-Learning occurs as a result of social interaction


-Rooted in behaviorism


-Adds cognitive processes (i.e. reasoning, motivation)



Social Cognitive Theory vs. Behaviorism


(Compare and contrast)

BOTH deal with reinforcement and punishment




Social Cognitive-


Learning is an internal process




Behaviorism-


Learning involves a behavior change

Aspects of self-regulated behavior

-Self-determined standards and goals


-Emotion regulation


-Self- instructions


-Self-monitoring (concrete mechanisms, videos)


-Self-evaluation (self-assessment)


-Self-imposed contingencies (mental pat on back, feeling ashamed/regretful)





Using Maslow's Heirarchy in the classroom


PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

-Room temp.


-Restroom/water fountain breaks


-Times to release pent-up energy


-Look out for kids who are chronically hungry or tired

Using Maslow's Heirarchy in the classroom


SAFETY NEEDS

-Orderly and organized class routine


-Ensure students understand expectations


-Clearly state evaluation criteria


-Help students recognize that mistakes are normal

Using Maslow's Heirarchy in the classroom


LOVE AND BELONGING NEEDS

-Learn students names


-Assign classroom duties and responsibilities


-Interview each student personally (likes, dislikes, interests, etc.)


-Recognize personal life events (i.e. birthday, family tragedy)


-Everyone is special and appreciated

Using Maslow's Heirarchy in the classroom


ESTEEM NEEDS

-Supports student's efforts to learn


-Provide sufficient variety of tasks and activities


-Plan activities that allow students to display their talents and achievements


-Recognize accomplishments outside classroom (i.e. sports)

Tacher self-efficacy

-Willing to experiement with new strategies


-Higher expectations for students and set higher goals


-Put more effort into teaching and more persistent in helping students learn

Stability

Liklihood that probability of causes will change over time. Directly related to one's expectancy for success.




EXAMPLE: Allison fails math test. Attributes failure to lack of sleep the night before.

Locus of control

One's belief that his or her behavior is guided by external factors sich as luck, fate, etc., or internal factors such as ability and effort.

Controlability

The person either has control over the situation or not.




EXAMPLE: Allison fails a math tests and attributes the failure to her teacher making the tests too hard.

Learning and consequences of Behaviorism

Learning-


A behavior change



Consequences-


Must be experienced directly

Learning and consequences of cognitive psychology

Learning-


An internal mental phenomenon, may or may not be reflected in behavior



Consequences-


Not a major focus


Learning and consequences of social cognitive theory

Learning-An internal mental phenomenon, may or may not be reflected in behavior



Consequences-


Can be directed or vicarious